school medicine – Vet Clin Path Journal Mon, 07 Mar 2022 03:29:37 +0000 en-US hourly 1 school medicine – Vet Clin Path Journal 32 32 New way to educate a medical student Sun, 06 Mar 2022 20:05:00 +0000

We all know the traditional way to become a doctor: complete pre-medical courses, attend medical school for four years, do a year of internship, three to four years of residency, and undergo specialized training. This represents approximately 12 years of travelling, studying, taking exams and training. Such a huge expense!

But with the advent of the internet and mentorship software via Skype and YouTube, universities can create a hybrid program for those living in rural areas.

With this hybrid system that I am proposing, the cost will be more than halved as graduates become better doctors. Because from the third year of secondary school, students will have the possibility of choosing a doctor-mentor practitioner in the nearest provincial or tertiary hospital with a residency program.

These selected high school students will follow the chosen doctors on their rounds to the hospital or their clinic every Saturday for at least two hours. Physician mentors would teach students how to make a diagnosis using the traditional tools of history taking, physical examination, ordering lab and imaging tests, and follow-up.

As soon as students get home or shortly after dinner, they should go to YouTube or Google videos and study the patient they saw that day. These online videos are pre-approved by the dean of the college. Students should watch videos or read disease pathology, clinical presentation, physical examination, differential diagnosis, request blood tests, CT, MRI and treatment.

Students should write down the patients they see with the mentor and group them by infections, cancers, metabolic diseases, nutritional and psychological needs, injuries, etc.

Students study medicine starting in the third year of high school, complete four years of online pre-medical courses and two years of online medical school. They will then enroll in a traditional medical school for a two-year clinical experience and then complete their residency training. Those wishing to become specialists can take additional training for two to four years.

Colleges and universities should develop an online curriculum for hybrid students, who should take the same exams as traditional medical students. Required exams can be taken online via Skype.

Without the need to travel, hybrid medical education becomes less stressful for students as they would have more time to study at home. They would also learn faster through hands-on training.

With hundreds of YouTube and Google videos on how to take a clinical history, do a physical exam, order lab tests, and do a differential diagnosis, we can produce more rural doctors at dramatically reduced costs. , and perhaps have happier and better doctors than the traditional graduates.

Former Assistant Clinical Professor of Pediatrics
Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston

Read more

Don’t miss the latest news and information.

To subscribe to MORE APPLICANT to access The Philippine Daily Inquirer and over 70 titles, share up to 5 gadgets, listen to news, download as early as 4am and share articles on social media. Call 896 6000.

For comments, complaints or inquiries, Contact us.

Institute of Infectious Diseases of the Institute of Human Virology Thu, 03 Mar 2022 04:18:20 +0000

BALTIMORE, March 3, 2022—The University of Maryland School of Medicine Institute of Human Virologya Global Virus Network (GVN) Center of excellence, physician researchers played a collaborative role in the successful transplant last month of a genetically modified pig heart into a patient with end-stage heart disease by creating strategies for monitoring pathogens and developing an infection prevention strategy for this important, unprecedented medical advance.

“Complications from infectious diseases are always a concern in the field of organ transplantation, whether they are infections related to the recipient or the donor, which in this case remarkably happens to be a pig,” said Kapil Saharia, MD, MPH, Assistant Professor of Medicine at the Institute of Human Virology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine and Chief of the Solid Organ Transplant Infectious Diseases Service at the University of Maryland Medical Center. “We are excited to work synergistically on this one-of-a-kind transplant by innovating in laboratory tests and protocols that enable monitoring of potential infections derived from pig donors. »

To reduce the risk of infection, the donor pig was raised in a disease-free laboratory environment and screened for many known porcine pathogens before being brought to the laboratory. Although all pigs are known to have the endogenous porcine retrovirus, researchers had not detected any transmission to humans or non-human primates in previous studies.

Procedures that transfer tissues or organs from one type of animal to another are known as xenotransplantations. The Cardiac Xenotransplantation Program of UMSOM, led by Bartley Griffith, MD, Thomas E. and Alice Marie Hales Emeritus Professor of Transplant Surgery at UMSOM, and Muhammad M. Mohiuddin, MDProfessor of Surgery at UMSOM, has tapped into the world renowned Institute to preemptively minimize any possible risk of potential infection.

“The quality of support from IHV for our experimental surgery has been of great help to us,” said Dr. Griffith. “Our preoperative preparation and postoperative pathogen monitoring has been a significant pathway to discovery and treatment.

Dr Mohuiddin said: “Although the evidence is lacking, there is real concern about porcine pathogens causing disease in humans. We will continue to follow the patient carefully with the help of the IHV for zoonotic diseases.

Robert C. Gallo, MD, Homer & Martha Gudelsky Emeritus Professor of Medicine and Co-Founder and Director of the Institute of Human Virology at UMSOM, and Co-Founder and International Scientific Director of the GVN said: “Nearly four years ago, the xenotransplantation group came to see us at the Institute of Human Virology for our expertise, in particular related to human retroviruses which are not unlike that of pigs. Dr. Gallo is world famous for his discovery of the first human retroviruses.

Using what other researchers have published on the porcine retrovirus, researchers at the Institute of Human Virology have developed an in-house PCR test that will be used to screen the organ recipient for the virus. The test will be used to monitor the exposure of healthcare workers to this retrovirus over the coming months. The test will also be used for research animal studies needed to advance this procedure to possible clinical trials. These infectious disease doctors will also monitor the patient for any signs of another opportunistic infection due to taking immunosuppressants.

As a prerequisite for emergency clearance from the FDA, the team developed a hospital infection prevention plan for the University of Maryland Medical Center. The doctors who designed the program included Dr. Saharia, Anthony Harris, MD, MPH, professor of epidemiology and public health and division chief of health care outcomes research at the University of Maryland School of Medicine; Surbhi Leekha, MBBS, MPH, associate professor of epidemiology and public health at the University of Maryland School of Medicine and medical director of infection control and hospital epidemiology at the University of Maryland Medical Center; and Michelle Harris Williams, director of infection prevention at the University of Maryland Medical Center.

“Given that this xenotransplantation was performed as part of life-saving surgery, it was difficult to develop workflows to minimize risk to our healthcare providers and hospital staff, as well as other patients. “, said Dr. Saharia. “We have no precedent for xenotransplantation in a clinical setting, so we worked closely with our own infection control epidemiologists to develop a plan that was safe for everyone involved.”

The infection prevention plan used disposable equipment where possible and rigorous disinfection protocols. Additionally, healthcare facilities are instructed to use enhanced contact precautions when caring for the patient, which includes wearing gloves, gowns, and proper hand hygiene, as well as face masks and eye protection due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. To further reduce risk, patient specimens are hand-delivered to the laboratory and handled in the same manner as other highly infectious agents.

“We are happy to be part of a team led by Drs. Mohiuddin and Griffith over the past few years. This is certainly a milestone in the history of organ transplantation,” said Shyam Kottilil, MBBS, PhD, Professor of Medicine, Director of the Division of Infectious Diseases in the Department of Medicine and Director of the Division of Clinical Care and Research at the Institute of Human Virology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine and Senior Scientific Advisor to the GVN. “We will continue to work hand-in-hand with the team to ensure safety and improve clinical outcomes for this patient and others in the future.”

Anthony Amoroso, MD, The Professor of Medicine, Associate Chief of Infectious Diseases and Head of Clinical Care Programs at the University of Maryland Medical School Institute of Human Virology, said, “It’s very exciting that we can work in collaboration to support a pioneering achievement. of Drs. Griffith and Muhammad bringing xenotransplantation into the clinical arena.

Dr. Gallo added, “I would like to congratulate my colleagues in the Department of Surgery, its manager, Dr. Christine Lau, and the other people who contributed to the success of this transplant. Also, in particular, I congratulate the team of our Institute of Drs. Saharia, Kottilil and Amoroso and their colleagues, for their unwavering commitment to supporting this important program and their continued contribution to this unprecedented infectious disease control and detection program, especially in the face of a challenging immunocompromised clinical environment.

About the Institute of Human Virology

Formed in 1996 as a partnership between the State of Maryland, the City of Baltimore, the University System of Maryland, and the University of Maryland Medical System, IHV is an institute of the College of Medicine in the University of Maryland and is home to some of the most recognized and globally recognized experts in all of virology. IHV combines the disciplines of basic research, epidemiology and clinical research in a concerted effort to accelerate the discovery of diagnostics and therapies for a wide variety of chronic and life-threatening viral and immune disorders, including HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. For more information, visit and follow us on Twitter @IHVmaryland.

About University of Maryland Medical School

Now in its third century, the University of Maryland Medical School was incorporated in 1807 as the first public medical school in the United States. It continues today to be one of the world’s fastest growing leading biomedical research enterprises – with 46 academic departments, centers, institutes and programs, and a faculty of more than 3,000 physicians, scientists and allied health professionals, including members. of the National Academy of Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences, and a two-time distinguished recipient of the Albert E. Lasker Award in Medical Research. With an operating budget of over $1.2 billion, the School of Medicine works closely with the University of Maryland Medical Center and Medical System to provide intensive research, academic, and clinical care to nearly 2 million patients each year. The School of Medicine has nearly $600 million in extramural funding, with most of its academic departments ranking highly among all medical schools in the nation for research funding. As one of seven professional schools that make up the University of Maryland, Baltimore campus, the School of Medicine has a total population of nearly 9,000 faculty and staff, including 2,500 students, trainees, residents and fellows. The combined medical school and medical system (“University of Maryland Medicine”) has an annual budget of more than $6 billion and an economic impact of nearly $20 billion on the state and local community. The School of Medicine, which ranks 8th among public medical schools in terms of research productivity (according to the Association of American Medical Colleges profile) is an innovator in translational medicine, with 606 active patents and 52 start-up companies. In the last US News and World Report ranking of best medical schools, released in 2021, UM School of Medicine is ranked #9 among 92 public medical schools in the United States and among the top 15% (#27) of 192 public and private medical schools in the United States. The School of Medicine works locally, nationally and globally, with research and treatment facilities in 36 countries around the world. To visit

John Trojanowski, pathology and laboratory medicine Tue, 01 Mar 2022 11:02:41 +0000

John Trojanowski, pathology and laboratory medicine

John Q. Trojanowski, William Maul Measey-Truman G. Schnabel, Jr. Professor of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology in the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the Perelman School of Medicine, died Feb. 8. He was 75 years old.

Dr. Trojanowski was born in Bridgeport, CT, and was one of seven children. His father was a captain in the United States Air Force and Dr. Trojanowski grew up attending military schools as his family moved frequently to various Air Force bases in the United States and overseas. After graduating from high school, he majored in German at Kings College before receiving his medical and doctoral degrees at Tufts University School of Medicine. He completed his university training in Rotterdam, then returned to the United States for his neuropathology residency at Massachusetts General and Harvard Medical School. He met his wife, Virginia Man-Yee Lee, in Massachusetts and they moved to Pennsylvania after Dr. Lee was offered a job at a Philadelphia pharmaceutical company in 1979. Dr. Trojanowski joined the faculty at Penn in 1981.

Dr. Trojanowski shared his scientific and personal life with Dr. Lee, who became the John H. Ware 3rd Endowed Professor in Alzheimer’s Research in the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at Penn, also in 1981. Their findings identifying different forms tau protein has opened new avenues of research in neurodegenerative diseases. Little was known about Alzheimer’s disease in the 1980s, and homeroom teachers advised Drs. Trojanowski and Lee to avoid the topic, considered a career killer. They and their colleagues at Penn then made a series of groundbreaking discoveries showing that cell-to-cell aggregation and spread of specific pathological proteins is a common mechanism underlying Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders.

Over the decades, Drs. Trojanowski and Lee’s evolving research program kept Penn at the forefront of the field. The focus on the patient in their extensive basic and clinical work has identified many targets for potential therapies and drug treatments. Their lab also won some of the first federal grants to open an Alzheimer’s disease research center, and there they began recruiting and training the next generations of scientists. Dr. Trojanowski helped establish and expand a strong aging research network at Penn. In 1991, he became co-director with Dr. Lee of the Neurodegenerative Disease Research Center. Eleven years later, Dr. Trojanowski was appointed director of the Penn Institute on Aging, which he helped transform into a model center, catalyzing a wide range of groundbreaking work on aging and age-related diseases across the from the Penn campus.

Beyond his far-reaching impact at Penn, Dr. Trojanowski has also worked nationally and internationally, promoting and advancing research on aging, particularly as it relates to neurodegenerative diseases. In 1991 he became director of the National Institute on Aging (NIA) Alzheimer’s Disease Center Core, and elsewhere in the NIA he was active on the Board of Scientific Counselors, the National Advisory Council on Aging, and Neuroscience, Behavior and Sociology. Aging Review Committee. Among many other national leadership positions, he served as president of the American Association of Neuropathologists. Dr. Trojanowski led the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative’s Biomarker Core, a longitudinal study that changed the way patients are diagnosed. His pioneering research and transformative leadership helped establish Penn as a leading center for research into neurodegenerative diseases of aging and helped make Penn one of the nation’s top institutions receiving NIA funding. Programs he helped establish at Penn include the Marian S. Ware Alzheimer’s Program, the Penn Alzheimer’s Disease Center, the Morris K. Udall Center of Excellence for Parkinson’s Disease Research, and the NIA Penn U19 Center on Alpha-Synuclein Strains in Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias.

During his illustrious career, Dr. Trojanowski has earned the respect of his peers across the country and around the world. Colleagues remember Dr. Trojanowski as a passionate scientist who was also extremely modest about his accomplishments, noting the collaborative nature of his work and the teamwork that went with it. He has received numerous awards and honors for his work, including his election to the National Academy of Medicine in 2002 and the 2018 Alzheimer’s Association Lifetime Achievement Award. Until almost the end of his life, he was still writing grants and papers, and overseeing tens of millions of dollars of research to better understand the many disease proteins he and his wife had identified or studied during their 45 years together. To read many fond memories of Dr. Trojanowski from friends and peers, visit

He is survived by his wife, Dr. Lee; and five siblings. Dr. Lee and his other colleagues are planning a memorial symposium on neurodegeneration in the fall.

To report a death

Almanac appreciates being notified of the deaths of current and former faculty and staff, students, and other members of the University community. Call (215) 898-5274 or email

Yale Cancer Center Annual Conclave Awards Presentation Thu, 24 Feb 2022 22:50:13 +0000

The Yale Cancer Center held its annual Conclave Awards ceremony virtually on February 15 to celebrate scientific and caring achievements in 2021. Eric P. Winer, MD, director of Yale Cancer Center and chief medical officer of Smilow Cancer Hospital said hosted the event. Clinical and research awards included the Yale Cancer Center Lifetime Achievement Award, Ruth McCorkle Oncology Advanced Practice Provider Award, Class of ’61 Cancer Research Award, and several annual teaching, clinical, and scientific awards.

Nominations were reviewed by senior management at Yale Cancer Center and Smilow Cancer Hospital and selected in recognition of their outstanding contribution to cancer care and research. The Conclave 2021 winners are:

The award is given annually to a YCC member who has made an impact on the field of oncology nationally and internationally. Edelson served as chairman of the department of dermatology at Yale School Medicine for 36 years, the longest serving chair in Yale’s history, and from 2003 to 2008 Edelson served as director of the Yale Cancer Center. A leader in immunobiology, Edelson described and named cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and later devised Etracorporeal photochemotherapy, which became the first immunotherapy approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for any Cancer.

Stern is a professor of pathology and associate director of the Cancer Center for Shared Resources, and Bhatia is an assistant professor of medicine (medical oncology). Both were recognized as a faculty member who best exemplifies a culture of teaching and excellence and who ensures that trainees acquire the skills they need to develop as practitioners, scientists and researchers. exceptional health.

Lee is an Associate Professor of Medicine (Hematology) and Director of the Hematology/Oncology Fellowship Program. Colleagues have described Lee as “one of the most sought-after specialists in classical hematology, a stellar teacher, mentor, and educational innovator.”

Podoltsev is an associate professor of medicine (hematology) and his colleagues have described him as magnanimous, kind, brilliant and a “triple threat” in medicine. They also call Podoltsev a legendary educator with a depth of knowledge and a willingness to share, but a clinician whose “true heart of his work lies in his dedication to his patients.” Moliterno is an associate professor of neurosurgery and clinical director of the Chênevert Family Brain Tumor Center. She has been recognized for her technical genius, dexterity and speed during surgery, with a focus on optimal outcomes for her patients, while taking a holistic, thoughtful and compassionate approach to patient care.

  • Yale Cancer Center Award for Leadership in Diversity, Equity and Inclusion: Faye Rogers, Ph.D.

Rogers is an Associate Professor of Therapeutic Radiology and Vice President for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion. She has distinguished herself through her scientific achievements, her commitment to improving the culture and basic sciences at Yale, and supporting trainees from backgrounds traditionally underrepresented in biomedicine.

Fan is a professor of biomedical engineering and pathology, and Guo is an associate professor of cell biology. They were honored for their significant achievements in cancer research as young faculty members, coupled with the expectation of future outstanding contributions to the causes of cancer and the development of new cancer treatments.

  • Ruth McCorkle Award for Provider of Advanced Practice in Oncology: Carol Staugaard, APRN-BC

The award is given annually to recognize the contributions of advanced practice providers to oncology patient care. Staugaard has cared for patients since 1982 and has placed patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancers and their families at the forefront of her work since 2002, when she joined the Yale GI Medical Oncology team. Her colleagues described her as “compassionate, nurturing, stellar, calm and a voice of reason, and the unwavering backbone of the nursing team”.

Claus is a professor of biostatistics. She received her award for her work on the study “Environmental and sex-specific molecular signatures of glioma causation”, published in the Journal of Neuro-Oncology.

  • Yale Cancer Center Translational Scientific Research Award: Faye Rogers, PhD Rogers is an associate professor of therapeutic radiology. She was honored for her article in the journal Natural biotechnology“Direct targeting of amplified gene loci for pro-apoptotic cancer therapy.”
  • Yale Cancer Center Clinical Science Research Award: Lajos Pusztai, MD, DPhil Pusztai is Professor of Medicine (Medical Oncology). He was honored for his publication in the journal cancer cell“Durvalumab with olaparib and paclitaxel for high-risk HER2-negative stage II/III breast cancer: results from the I-SPY2 adaptive randomized trial.”
  • Yale Cancer Center Basic Science Research Award: Marcus Bosenberg, MD, PhD and Qin Yan, PhD Bosenberg is professor of pathology, dermatology and immunology and director of the Yale Center for Immuno-Oncology. Yan is an associate professor of pathology. Both were honored for their publication in the journal Nature“KDM5B promotes immune evasion by recruiting SETDB1 to silence retroelements.”

A full list of past Conclave winners can be found here at:

Scientists discover how a rare genetic disease disrupts key neural interactions in the developing brain Thu, 24 Feb 2022 04:01:00 +0000

Every time you chew, talk, yawn, or feel the zap of a toothache, cranial nerve cells send electrochemical signals to your brain. Some of these neurons detect pain, while others detect facial muscle movements or skin sensations.

Now, in a new study published in Disease Models & Mechanisms, scientists at VTC’s Fralin Biomedical Research Institute, led by Anthony-Samuel LaMantia, describe the early development of pain- and motion-sensing neurons in the face and throat. The findings reveal a previously unexplored feature of brain and cranial nerve development underlying eating, swallowing and speech.

We were able to show for the first time that this momentary interaction between two groups of cells plays a crucial role in the regulation of movements and the innervation of pain in the face.”

Anthony-Samuel LaMantia, Professor and Director, Center for Neurobiology Research at the Fralin Biomedical Research Institute

Researchers examined early neural development in mouse embryos with DiGeorge syndrome, a rare genetic condition associated with neural and facial abnormalities. Like human patients born with DiGeorge, mice may carry the same genetic mutation, providing an ideal model to study where development goes wrong at the cellular and molecular level.

Children born with DiGeorge typically have trouble coordinating milk sucking and swallowing, a condition called pediatric dysphagia, but it’s unclear how the mutation causes these functional abnormalities. While the movements of the mouth, tongue, and throat involved in eating are controlled by motor neurons, mechanosensory neurons—a subject of this study—detect and integrate movement cues to fine-tune behavior. The study also assessed pain-sensing neurons, or nociceptors, that monitor potentially harmful aspects of eating behavior, including excessive temperatures and irritants like the capsaicin in hot peppers.

LaMantia and his lab have been studying this syndrome to unravel facets of cranial nerve development and oropharyngeal behaviors for a decade.

Based on their previous research, the scientists knew that on the ninth day of mouse embryo development, two groups of cells – the neural crest and the placode cells – had to meet to begin tracing the plane of the facial nerve. . They knew that in the syndromic mice, something was wrong at this stage of development that had deleterious behavioral consequences, but this required further investigation.

“Initially, we weren’t sure if these two cell groups weren’t migrating together to meet in the right place, or if they were in the right place at the right time, and just couldn’t communicate,” LaMantia said. . . With this newly released data, LaMantia’s lab now suspects the latter to be true.

By combining in vivo analysis and imaging to visualize a variety of molecular markers, the researchers discovered that neural crest cells were transforming into pain-sensing neurons far too soon. This premature differentiation increased the amount of placode cells, which become mechanosensory neurons, compared to neural crest cells.

This study builds on previous work from LaMantia’s lab. Seven years ago, researchers examined whether neurons in developing cranial nerves produced axons that responded to functional targets in the face, mouth and throat. They found that compared to regular mice, syndromic mouse embryos lacked proper innervation – axons were shorter, misplaced and disorganized.

“Not only were the neurons confused as to what they were supposed to do, but their axons also didn’t have precise destinations — they just got lost,” LaMantia said.

In a follow-up study, LaMantia’s lab identified key genes involved in regulating normal axon growth of the cranial nerve. Remarkably, the researchers were able to restore ordinary cranial nerve growth in mice with DiGeorge syndrome by deleting a specific gene.

The new finding reveals how changes in the expression of genes associated with DiGeorge syndrome destabilize the growth of sensory neurons by disrupting a key interaction between the neural crest and placode cells. LaMantia’s lab now aims to uncover the molecular signals these cell groups need to assemble a healthy cranial nerve.

“Now that we’ve identified the point of divergence where these functional oropharyngeal problems originate, our next step will be to understand the vocabulary these cells use to communicate with each other,” LaMantia said.

This research was funded in part by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, part of the National Institutes of Health; and the Fralin Biomedical Research Institute. LaMantia is also a professor in the Department of Biological Sciences at the College of Sciences and the Department of Pediatrics at Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine.


Journal reference:

Karpinski, BA, et al. (2022) Selective disruption of trigeminal sensory neurogenesis and differentiation in a mouse model of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Disease models and mechanisms.

New scholarship aims to prepare future flight surgeons to face medical challenges in space Sat, 12 Feb 2022 19:21:00 +0000

A recently launched UCLA space medicine fellowship, the first of its kind in the United States, aims to develop the next generation of flight surgeons who will support the health, safety and well-being of human spaceflight and planetary expeditions .

The two-year program will include rotations at SpaceX and a specialized engineering program with the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), which is managed by Caltech. Under UCLA, fellows will train in biomechanical engineering with the UCLA Samueli School of Engineering, undergo austere medical training in a polar climate, participate in Mars-like missions in Utah, and conduct research with the Capability Element medical exploration of NASA’s human research program. The scholarship includes opportunities with other partner agencies, such as the University of Colorado’s Aerospace Engineering and Wild Medicine programs, as well as those in the aerospace industry. Fellows will also expand their medical abilities through surgical rotations and toxicology coursework while continuing their clinical practice as a staff member in the emergency department.

“We are thrilled to partner with Caltech, JPL and SpaceX to prepare future flight surgeons to deal with the unique medical challenges posed to people in space and the effects of space travel on the human body in this field by full growth,” said Fellowship Director Dr. Jo Feldman. “Our alliance with these industry leaders will pave the way for a deep understanding and knowledge of how to keep astronauts and space travelers safe, both in flight and during their missions,” Feldman added. .

The two-year program begins in July 2022, with his first colleague, Dr. Haig Aintablian, who recently completed his emergency medicine residency at UCLA’s David Geffen School of Medicine. Applications for subsequent years will begin in November 2022 and will be open to graduates of four-year ACGME/OGME accredited emergency medicine residencies who are eligible for a California medical license.

“It’s an incredible honor to be the first fellow to participate in this program and achieve my goal of becoming a flight surgeon,” Aintablian said.

During the fellowship, the month-long analog mission to Mars will simulate the rock formations on a Martian surface in Utah and also recreate the health hazards found in this environment. Likewise, Fellows will rotate through a polar climate that will allow them to experience sub-zero environments and how the body resists pressure changes in this terrain, creating an isolated environment where access to resources is limited.

With deep space travel on the not-so-distant horizon, UCLA’s space medicine program comes at just the right time. Our fellows will have the skills to help astronauts and passengers manage the effects of space travel on human physiology and maintain their health away from Earth. »

Dr. Greg Hendey, chair of emergency medicine at UCLA

A smartphone app can vibrate a single drop of blood to determine its coagulation Fri, 11 Feb 2022 22:19:53 +0000 Blood clots form naturally to stop bleeding when a person is injured. But blood clots in patients with medical conditions, such as mechanical heart valves or other heart problems, can lead to stroke or heart attack. That’s why millions of Americans take blood thinners, like warfarin, which make it harder for blood to clot.

However, warfarin is not perfect and requires patients to be tested frequently to ensure their blood is in the correct range – blood that clots too easily can still lead to a stroke or heart attack while the blood that does not clot can lead to prolonged bleeding after an injury. To be tested, patients must either go to a clinical laboratory or use an expensive home testing system.

Researchers at the University of Washington have developed a new blood clotting test that uses just a single drop of blood and a vibration motor and smartphone camera. The system includes a plastic attachment that holds a small cup under the phone’s camera.

A person adds a drop of blood to the cup, which contains a small particle of copper and a chemical that triggers the blood clotting process. Then the phone’s vibration motor shakes the cup while the camera monitors the movement of the particle, which slows and then stops as the clot forms. The researchers showed that this method was within the accuracy range of standard instruments in the field.

The team published these results on February 11 in Nature Communication.

“Back then, doctors used to manually rock blood tubes back and forth to monitor how long it took for a clot to form. However, this requires a lot of blood, making it impossible its use at home,” said the senior. author Shyam Gollakota, UW professor at the Paul G. Allen School of Computer Science & Engineering. “The creative leap we’re making here is that we’re showing that by using the vibration motor on a smartphone, our algorithms can do the same thing, except with a single drop of blood. And we get similar accuracy to best available techniques. in trade.”

Doctors can classify blood clotting ability using two numbers:

  • the time it takes for the clot to form, called the “prothrombin time” or PT
  • a ratio calculated from the PT that makes it easier for doctors to compare results between different tests or laboratories, called the “international normalized ratio” or INR

“Most people who take this drug take it for life. But it’s not a set and forget thing – in the US most people are only in what we call the ‘desirable range’ PT/INR levels about 64% of the time,” said co-author Dr. Kelly Michaelsen, assistant professor of anesthesiology and pain medicine at the UW School of Medicine. “That number is even higher. low – only about 40% of the time – in countries like India or Uganda where testing is less frequent. How can we improve this? We need to make it easier for people to test more frequently and take ownership of their healthcare.”

Patients who can monitor their PT/INR levels at home would only need to see a clinician if the test suggested they were outside this desirable range, Michaelsen said.

The researchers wanted an inexpensive device that could work similarly to home blood glucose monitors for people with diabetes: a person can prick their finger and test a drop of blood.

“We started by vibrating a single drop of blood and trying to monitor the waves on the surface,” said lead author Justin Chan, a UW doctoral candidate at the Allen School. “But it was really difficult with such a small amount of blood.”

The team added a small copper particle because its movement was so much more reliable to track.

“As the blood clots, it forms a web that tightens. And in the process, the particle goes from bouncing happily to not moving,” Michaelsen said.

To calculate PT and INR, the phone collects two timestamps: the first when the user inserts the blood and the second when the particle stops moving.

“For the first time, we are looking for the moment when the user inserts a capillary tube containing the sample into the frame,” Chan said. “For the end of the measurement, we look directly inside the cup so that the only movement inside these frames is the copper particle. The particle suddenly stops moving because the blood coagulates very quickly, and you You can observe this difference between the frames. From there, we can calculate the PT, and that can be mapped to the INR.”

The researchers tested this method on three different types of blood samples. As a proof of concept, the team started with plasma, a component of blood that is transparent and therefore easier to test. The researchers tested plasma from 140 anonymized patients at the University of Washington Medical Center. The team also examined plasma from 79 patients with known blood clotting problems. For both of these conditions, the test gave similar results to commercially available tests.

To mimic what a patient at home would experience, the team then tested whole blood from 80 anonymized patients at Harborview and University of Washington Medical Centers. This test also gave results that were within the accuracy range of commercial tests.

This device is still at the proof of concept stage. Researchers have made the code public and are exploring commercialization opportunities along with further testing. For example, currently, all these tests have been carried out in the laboratory. The next step is to work with patients to test this system at home. The researchers also want to see how the system performs in regions and countries with more limited resources.

“Almost every smartphone of the last decade has a vibration motor and a camera. That means almost anyone who has a phone can use it. All you need is a simple plastic attachment, no hardware. ‘additional electronics of any kind,’ Gollakota said. “It’s the best of all worlds – it’s basically the holy grail of PT/INR testing. It makes them frugal and accessible to millions of people, even when resources are very limited.”

Additional co-authors of this article are Joanne Estergreen, clinical laboratory supervisor in the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology at the UW School of Medicine, and Dr. Daniel Sabath, professor of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology at the U.W. School of Medicine. This research was funded by the Moore Foundation Fellowship.

WSU Center for Emerging and Infectious Diseases New Laboratory Receives CLIA Certification Mon, 07 Feb 2022 17:16:35 +0000

The new Center for Emerging and Infectious Diseases laboratory at Wayne State University School of Medicine has received Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments certification.

The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services regulates all laboratory testing (except research) performed on humans in the United States through the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments. The CLIA program ensures the quality of laboratory testing and is required before a laboratory can accept human specimens for diagnostic testing.

The Center for Emerging and Infectious Diseases lab is the first instance of a CLIA certification issued for a lab specifically in WSU’s name and is one of the few CLIA-certified labs in Detroit.

“This is a big step forward for the center,” said Teena Chopra, MD, MPH, co-director of the center and medical director of the lab. “The Center for Emerging and Infectious Diseases laboratory is an essential resource for disease identification, surveillance and research, including research on the SARS-COV2 virus as well as multidrug-resistant infections.”

Hossein Salimnia, Ph.D., professor of pathology and technical director of the laboratory, the CLIA application was very well received. “This was one of the smoothest and fastest approvals I have been associated with. The lab will be used for early identification of outbreaks and infection prevention in the community, detection of new variants, and development of vaccines,” he said.

WSU received $4.3 million from the Michigan Sequencing Academic Partnership for Public Health Innovation and Response, or MI-SAPPHIRE, provided through an Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity Grant from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from the United States received by the State Department of Health and Human Services.

The lab will strengthen WSU’s collaborative response to emerging and infectious diseases in partnership with the City of Detroit Health Department and the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services.

Does Omicron cause less lung damage? Fri, 14 Jan 2022 13:10:40 +0000

Share on Pinterest
Does Omicron cause less lung damage than Delta? David Paul Morris/Bloomberg via Getty Images
  • Animal studies and experiments involving lab-grown cells suggest that the Omicron variant may have a reduced ability to infect the lungs, compared to the Delta variant.
  • This could explain why the Omicron variant appears to cause less severe disease than the Delta variant.
  • These studies indicate that the Omicron variant may be more effective at infecting the upper respiratory tract than the Delta variant, potentially explaining its increased contagiousness.
  • The ability of the Omicron variant to evade neutralizing antibodies may also be responsible for its increased transmissibility.

Early reports following the emergence of the Omicron variant suggest that the variant is more likely to cause less severe disease than previous SARS-CoV-2 variants.

Sequencing of the Omicron genome suggested that this variant carries a large number of mutations, including on the spike protein. The large number of mutations carried by Omicron could be a potential reason for this reduction in disease severity.

However, the milder illness due to Omicron infection could also be the result of a person’s enhanced immunity, acquired due to vaccination or previous SARS-CoV-2 infections.

Although increased immunity may influence disease severity, studies in animals and lab-grown cells suggest that mutations carried by the Omicron variant made it less effective at infecting the lungs than the variant. Delta. This could explain the less severe disease caused by the Omicron variant.

The SARS-CoV-2 virus can affect both the upper and lower respiratory tract. The upper respiratory tract includes the nose, sinuses, and throat, while the lower respiratory tract includes the trachea and the lungs.

Mild illness or early infections with SARS-CoV-2 are likely to involve upper respiratory tract symptoms, such as a runny nose and sore throat.

Severe illness due to wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and previous variants often involves infection and inflammation of the lungs.

Inflammation can cause fluid to build up in the air sacs, or alveoli, of the lungs, reducing the lungs’ ability to transfer oxygen to the blood.

Scientists conducted experiments using animal models and laboratory lung cell cultures to characterize Omicron’s ability to infect the airways and cause serious illness.

This includes a to study carried out at the University of Hong Kong which used human lung cells cultured in the laboratory, to analyze the ability of the Omicron variant to infect the lungs. These cells were cultured from lung tissue removed during lung processing. As a rule, this fabric is discarded.

In the study, Omicron replicated 70 times faster than Delta in human bronchi, which are the tubes connecting the trachea to the lungs. However, it was less efficient at replicating in lung tissue than Delta and wild-type SARS-CoV-2.

Other research groups have compared the ability of Omicron, Delta, and other SARS-CoV-2 variants to cause disease in animal models, such as hamster and mouse.

There is a link between infection with Delta and other variants and weight loss in hamsters and mouse after 1 week, with some data suggesting a correlation between increased virus levels in the respiratory tract and weight loss.

However, various research groups have independently shown a absence of such weight loss in hamsters and mice after Omicron infection.

Additionally, these studies found that hamsters infected with Omicron had higher or similar virus levels, compared to wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and the Delta variant in the upper respiratory tract. In contrast, the researchers observed lower levels of virus in the lower respiratory tract after infection with the Omicron variant, compared to the Delta variant.

In sum, these studies show that Omicron may be less effective at infecting the lungs. Significantly, these animal studies show that infection with Omicron results in lower levels of inflammation and damage to the lungs.

In accordance with this, there is growing evidence suggesting that people infected with Omicron are less likely be hospitalized or require admission to an intensive care unit or mechanical ventilation than people with the Delta variant.

Medical News Today speak with Dr. Scott Roberts, professor of infectious diseases at the Yale School of Medicine in New Haven, CT. He said,

“A number of laboratory studies have now shown that the Omicron variant is less able to infect the lungs as well as other variants and therefore leads to fewer patients admitted with pneumonia who require oxygen. and fans.”

” We see [that] the majority of patients infected with Omicron have mild disease that is more localized to the upper respiratory tract and hospitalizations are not increasing as rapidly as with previous variants,” Dr. Roberts added.

“However, hospitalizations and deaths are lagging behind the total number of cases, and as our cases continue to rise and set daily records, we ultimately have to wait several more weeks to get a full picture of the severity of the disease here in the United States.”

A potential reason for the less severe lower respiratory tract infection by Omicron in the present studies could be changes in the ability of this variant to enter lower respiratory tract cells.

The Omicron variant features a large number of mutations in the gene encoding the spike protein, which is expressed on the surface of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binds to the ACE2 receptor expressed on lung cells and helps the virus enter the cell. The cleavage of the spike protein by an enzyme called TMPRSS2 present on the surface of human cells is required before fusion of the viral membrane with the human cell membrane can occur.

The SARS-CoV-2 virus can also enter human cells through an alternative route. This pathway involves the engulfment of virus by endosomes, which are membrane-bound sacs present inside the cell.

Studies using cells grown in the laboratory to suggest this mutations in Omicron’s spike protein have impaired its ability to enter human cells using TMPRSS2.

These studies showed that the Omicron variant is less efficient at infecting lab-cultured lung cells expressing TMPRSS2 than the Delta variant.

In contrast, Omicron is more effective than Delta in infecting cells that allow cell entry through the endosome pathway.

The ACE2 receptor and TMPRSS2 are expressed at higher levels in cells from the human lower respiratory tract than in cells from the upper respiratory tract. This could potentially explain why the Omicron variant may be less effective at infecting the lower respiratory tract and causing severe disease.

The interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and TMPRSS2 is also implicated in mediating the fusion of infected human cells with adjacent uninfected cells.

The reduced ability of the Omicron spike protein to utilize the TMPRSS2 enzyme also limits its ability to infect adjacent cells. This could further help reduce the severity of lower respiratory tract infections due to COVID-19.

These results come from cell cultures and animal studies. Therefore, human studies are needed to establish that such a change in Omicron is responsible for its reduced ability to infect lung cells.

DTM speak with Dr. Peter Kasson, a professor at the University of Virginia at Charlottesville. He said:

“The Omicron variant is interesting in that it appears to swap preferences for the entry route with Delta and previous variants. As a result, it is less efficient at infecting lung cells but more efficient at infecting many cells. upper respiratory tract.

“This correlates with the pattern of disease seen in Omicron – while lower lung pathology is seen, upper airway disease is often more common,” he concluded.

In addition to causing less severe disease, the Omicron variant is also more transmissible. Animal and cell culture studies also suggest that Omicron may be more effective at infecting the upper respiratory tract.

Studies conducted at the start of the pandemic show a association between SARS-CoV-2 levels in the upper respiratory tract and increased transmission.

The faster replication of Omicron in the upper respiratory tract may therefore explain its increased contagiousness.

“[These studies] give rise to appealing speculation that increased replication in upper respiratory tract tissues may contribute to increased transmissibility, potentially both by increasing exhaled viral load and decreasing the number of viral particles needed to infect, although, to my knowledge, this has not been definitively demonstrated,” explained Dr Kasson.

The increased contagiousness of the Omicron variant may also be due to its ability to evade detection by antibodies.

Previous SARS-CoV-2 infections and immunization with COVID-19 vaccines lead to the production of antibodies that neutralize the virus. These neutralizing antibodies tendency to predict the level of protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

The COVID-19 vaccines were designed to induce an immune response against the spike protein of the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 strain.

The presence of mutations in the spike protein of the Omicron variant suggests that this variant may escape neutralization by antibodies.

A to study conducted by researchers at the MRC-University of Glasgow Center for Virus Research in the UK showed that the Omicron variant can evade neutralization by antibodies in individuals immunized with the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine. This could be another reason for the high transmissibility of the Omicron variant.

Although scientists need to do more research before they can draw any solid conclusions, the characteristics of this new variant are slowly being revealed.

For live updates on the latest developments regarding the novel coronavirus and COVID-19, click here.

]]> Felix Cheung – who studies wellness – among 33 new or renewed Canada Research Chairs at the University of Toronto Wed, 12 Jan 2022 18:43:51 +0000

Does economic growth contribute to happiness? With its research project on the well-being of the population, the University of Toronto Felix Cheung hope to find out.

An assistant professor in the Department of Psychology at the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Cheung calls the question of economic happiness one of the oldest debates in his field.

He cites, as an example, previous research he did on Hong Kong that found relatively low levels of life satisfaction despite high GDP per capita and long life expectancy – two common measures of well-being. be used by governments. And he notes that the same may be increasingly true in Canada after nearly two years of battling COVID-19.

“At a minimum, our well-being is not improving,” he says. “This is enough to consider: is our policy aligned with what Canadians want in life? “

Cheung also wishes to explore how governments can “can actually spend our economic growth to buy happiness,” noting that it is not so much economic prosperity as how it is distributed that may be most important.

“One of the agreements behind the rallying cry for police funding, I think, calls on us as a community to rethink how we spend government spending to promote the collective well-being of all.”

Cheung is one of 33 faculty members at the University of Toronto to receive a new or renewed Canada Research Chair in the last round of nominations announced on Wednesday (see full list below). The program supports exceptional work in a wide variety of fields. At the University of Toronto, that includes everything from marine epidemiology and precision medicine to research into sustainable bioproducts.

At the same time, the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI) – in collaboration with the CRC program – announced its support for Cheung and another researcher at the University of Toronto through his program. John R. Evans Leaders Fund (JELF), which helps universities pay for labs and equipment. The second researcher, Ji young Youn, is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Molecular Genetics at Temerty Medical School and a Scientist at the Hospital for Sick Children.

Professor Shaf Keshavjee from the University Health Network and the Faculty of Medicine of Temerty, also received $ 24 million in support through the New Frontiers in Research Fund for its project, The Next Frontier in Transplantation: Ex vivo Strategies to Repair and Reconstruct organs.

“I would like to congratulate all the researchers at the University of Toronto who have been selected for a new chair or whose chair has been renewed, as well as those who have received funding from the John R. Evans Leaders Fund and the New Frontiers in Research Fund. said Lea Cowen, vice-president, research and innovation, and strategic initiatives.

“The federal government’s continued support for important work through Canada Research Chairs and other programs plays a key role in enabling our researchers to advance knowledge and foster innovation in a wide variety of ways. of domains.

The CRC program, established in 2000, invests up to $ 295 million per year to recruit and retain the best minds in Canada. It supports research in engineering, natural sciences, health sciences, humanities and social sciences.

In Cheung’s case, he plans to use level two funding from the Canada Research Chair to study the determinants, consequences and political relevance of population well-being using a multidisciplinary approach. He plans to explore three lines of research: What contributes to the well-being of the population and what can be done to create a more satisfying life for a given population? What are the desirable consequences of a happier society? And, finally, does the public support the idea of ​​using well-being as a major political indicator?

He says his work was inspired by observations he made while living in Hong Kong, where he noted that a high GDP per capita and a long life expectancy didn’t seem to make people happy.

“I could see that people were going through their lives without necessarily having a purpose,” he says. “This observation was later confirmed by my own data analysis.”

In fact, he discovered that the inhabitants of the region lived the least satisfying life in the developed world. “Hong Kong is a warning to the rest of the world,” he said. “A long and prosperous life is not necessarily a good life.”

Cheung joined the U of T in July 2020 and continued to research the topic. “There are so many world-class experts from different disciplines here,” he says. “I take advantage of it a lot because [the concept of] well-being is so multifaceted.

His proposal for the Canada Research Chairs Program extends not only to Ontario, but across the country. He adds that the program’s support will allow it to take the first step towards its long-term goal: to reinvent the way we measure societal progress.

“We need buy-in from different sectors – the public, government, business and non-governmental organizations,” he said. “This award is this initial membership that gives me hope that it is doable.”

He hopes his research can be used to measure well-being and its distribution across age groups, gender, sexual orientation, as well as racial and ethnic groups.

“Only if we measure it can we make other decisions about how we want to allocate resources,” says Cheung, adding that such research can help identify populations for which current policies do not. do not increase happiness.

“Nothing prevents the well-being of the population from becoming a major political indicator over the next century, as it reflects equality in our community which is currently not taken into account by existing political indicators. ”

Here are the new and renewed Canada Research Chairs at the University of Toronto:

New Canada Research Chairs

  • Benjamin blencowe from the Donnelly Center for Cellular and Biomedical Research at Temerty School of Medicine, level one in RNA Biology and Genomics
  • David Burnes of the Faculty of Social Work Factor-Inwentash, level two in prevention of elder abuse
  • Felix Cheung of the Department of Psychology of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, level two in well-being of the population
  • Lihi Eder from the Department of Medicine at Temerty School of Medicine and Women’s College Hospital, level two in inflammatory rheumatic disease
  • Anna heath of the Dalla Lana School of Public Health and the Hospital for Sick Children, level two in the design of statistical trials
  • Omar F. Khan from the Institute of Biomedical Engineering of the Faculty of Applied Sciences and Engineering, level two in nucleic acid therapy
  • Thomas kislinger from the Department of Medical Biophysics of the Faculty of Medicine of Temerty and the University Health Network, level one in precision cancer medicine
  • Heather maclean of the Department of Civil and Mineral Engineering of the Faculty of Applied Sciences and Engineering, level one in evaluation of sustainable systems and technologies
  • Sonya macparland from the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology of the Faculty of Medicine of Temerty and the University Health Network, level two in hepatic immunobiology
  • Kristin musselman from the physiotherapy department of the Faculty of Medicine of Temerty, level two in multi-morbidity and complex rehabilitation
  • Daniel I. Posen from the Department of Civil and Mineral Engineering of the Faculty of Applied Sciences and Engineering, level two in system-wide environmental impacts of energy and transportation technologies
  • Milica Radish from the Institute of Biomedical Engineering of the Faculty of Applied Sciences and Engineering, level one in organ-on-chip engineering
  • Chao wang from the Department of Immunology, Temerty School of Medicine and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, level two in Immunometabolism in Neuroinflammation
  • Tania Watts from the Department of Immunology of the Faculty of Medicine of Temerty, level 1 in anti-viral immunity
  • Ning yan of the Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry of the Faculty of Applied Sciences and Engineering, level one in sustainable bioproducts
  • Ji-young youn from the Department of Molecular Genetics at Temerty School of Medicine and the Hospital for Sick Children, Level Two in Proteomics of Membrane-less Organelles

Renewed Canada Research Chairs

  • Ana Andreazza from the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology of the Faculty of Medicine of Temerty, Level Two in Molecular Pharmacology and Mood Disorders
  • Daniel Bender from the Department of Historical and Cultural Studies, U of T Scarborough, Level One in Food and Culture
  • Robert bonin from the Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, level two in sensory plasticity
  • Brian connelly from the Department of Management at U of T Scarborough, Level Two in Integrative Personality Perspectives
  • Shelley craig of the Faculty of Social Work Factor-Inwentash, level two in sexual and minority youth
  • Daniel De Carvalho from the Department of Medical Biophysics of the Faculty of Medicine of Temerty and the University Health Network, level two in cancer epigenetics and epigenetic therapy
  • Elizabeth edwards of the Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry of the Faculty of Applied Sciences and Engineering, level one in anaerobic biotechnology
  • Barbara Fall on of the Faculty of Social Work Factor-Inwentash, level two in child protection
  • Penny gilbert of the Institute of Biomedical Engineering of the Faculty of Applied Sciences and Engineering, level two in endogenous repair
  • Martin krkosek from the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, level two in marine epidemiology
  • Warren lee from the Department of Medicine at the Temerty Faculty of Medicine and Unity Health Toronto, level two in endothelial permeability mechanisms
  • Jeffrey Meyer from the Department of Psychiatry of the Faculty of Medicine of Temerty and the Center for Addiction and Mental Health, level one in neurochemistry of major depressive disorder
  • Jean Rubinstein from the Department of Biochemistry of Temerty Faculty of Medicine and Hospital for Sick Children, Level One in Electron Cryomicroscopy
  • Mikko Taipale from the Donnelly Center for Cellular and Biomedical Research at Temerty School of Medicine, level two in Functional Proteomics and Proteostasis
  • Bebhinn treanor from the Department of Biological Sciences, U of T Scarborough, Level Two in Spatial Resolution Biochemistry
  • Andrea Tricco from the Dalla Lana School of Public Health and Unity Health Toronto, level two in knowledge synthesis
  • Amar Vutha from the physics department of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, level two in precision atomic and molecular physics