Laboratory medicine – Vet Clin Path Journal http://vetclinpathjournal.org/ Wed, 23 Nov 2022 04:10:07 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://vetclinpathjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/cropped-icon-32x32.png Laboratory medicine – Vet Clin Path Journal http://vetclinpathjournal.org/ 32 32 Study reveals new way to prepare imaging https://vetclinpathjournal.org/study-reveals-new-way-to-prepare-imaging/ Wed, 23 Nov 2022 02:00:43 +0000 https://vetclinpathjournal.org/study-reveals-new-way-to-prepare-imaging/

image: Dr. Benjamin Rotstein, Associate Professor in the Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa.
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Credit: Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa

Dr. Benjamin Rotstein and his collaborators unveil an operationally simple method for preparing carbon-labeled versions of drugs and diagnostics.

The development of new pharmaceuticals relies on the ability of scientists to elegantly design specific drugs for targeted clinical trials. And the isotopic labeling of drug candidates in research laboratories is crucial in this global effort.

In a new study, Laboratory of Dr. Benjamin Rotstein to University of Ottawa Faculty of Medicine collaborated with colleagues to unveil an operationally simple method for preparing carbon-labeled versions of drugs and diagnostics. They have developed a method to exchange a single amino acid atom – building blocks of proteins that are also used to make molecules – for its isotope.

“It’s really important in drug development because we want to know where the drug goes in the body, how it’s metabolized and eliminated so we can plan appropriate dosing and toxicity studies,” says Dr. Rotstein, associate professor at the Faculty of Medicine Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology.

The work has been described in an article in natural chemistry, a high-impact journal that also published a separate article on the study in which two Danish scientists from Aarhus University described the team’s methods as “important for the field”.

Dr. Rotstein’s lab originally designed his experiments to function as a catalyst used by our bodies: pyridoxal phosphate, which removes carboxylic acid from amino acids and is the active form of vitamin B-6. But he says they wanted to make it work in reverse, and it turned out the mechanism was a little different from what they originally expected.

“We’re actually adding carbon dioxide and then removing the acid. So it’s a different mechanism that allows us to look at even better catalysts and expand the scope beyond amino acids,” he says.

The research was carried out in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Alberta and chemists from Sanofi, the French pharmaceutical company. Dr. Rotstein’s lab did the studies on carbon-11 and worked with these collaborators to uncover the mechanism of the reaction. His lab uses carbon-11 because it’s radioactive in a way that works well for medical imaging.

What are the next steps for his lab at the University of Ottawa? Dr. Rotstein and his team are currently studying how to make the reaction produce a single “mirror image” version of amino acids so that researchers don’t have to separate them after the fact.

He says they’re particularly excited about using amino acids at carbon 11 to measure how quickly our bodies produce protein, as it can be an indicator of disease.

“We also use them in imaging studies to learn more about metabolism and rates of protein synthesis in different tissues,” says Dr. Rotstein, who is also director of the Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Radiochemistry Probes at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute.


Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of press releases posted on EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.

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Kessler and BrainQ Join National Trial of Breakthrough Device to Improve Recovery After Stroke https://vetclinpathjournal.org/kessler-and-brainq-join-national-trial-of-breakthrough-device-to-improve-recovery-after-stroke/ Sun, 20 Nov 2022 17:15:00 +0000 https://vetclinpathjournal.org/kessler-and-brainq-join-national-trial-of-breakthrough-device-to-improve-recovery-after-stroke/

Researchers from the Kessler Foundation and the Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation (collectively “Kessler”) are enrolling participants in a nationwide trial of a breakthrough device to improve recovery after stroke. Kessler sites in West Orange and Saddle Brook, NJ, are among 20 sites across the United States participating in the EMAGINE Stroke Recovery trial, which combines therapeutic exercise with brain stimulation through an experimental wearable device . Steven Kirshblum, MD, is the principal investigator and Ghaith Androwis, PhD, is the co-principal investigator of the Kessler study.

Each year, strokes affect nearly 800,000 people in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Given the general impact of stroke on individuals, families and caregivers, as well as on health services and our economy, the benefits of improving stroke rehabilitation outcomes are substantial” noted Steven Kirshblum, MD, chief medical officer of the Kessler Foundation and Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation. Dr. Kirshblum is also chairman of the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School.

“Too often, stroke results in long-term disability that negatively affects quality of life,” Dr. Kirshblum continued. “We now know that with early and intensive intervention, stroke survivors have the ability to regain function. The EMAGINE trial capitalizes on this neuroplasticity of the brain and spinal cord by augmenting standard rehabilitation with stimulation electromagnetic therapy and making the therapy available in different settings, including the home,” he explained.

Each site plans to enroll people within four to 21 days of moderate to severe ischemic stroke. At Kessler, three participants to date have been enrolled in the study, which is randomized, simulation-controlled and double-blind, according to Dr. Androwis, principal investigator at the Mobility and Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center of the Kessler Foundation and director of the Center’s Robotics and Rehabilitation Research Laboratory.

The first participant completed the nine-week protocol, which includes 45 one-hour sessions administered five times per week. During each session, the participant performs therapeutic exercises while wearing the device, which fits over their head and torso without interrupting the participant’s ability to perform functional tasks with their upper limbs.

“Given the promising results of our already completed BrainQ trial in people with chronic spinal cord injury, we are excited to investigate the potential benefits of this non-invasive brain and spine stimulation intervention in people disabled by stroke,” said Dr. Androwis.

Using machine learning, the BQ device targets affected areas of the brain with electromagnetic field therapy. The therapy, which is low intensity and regulated frequency, is administered with the current standard of physiotherapy and occupational therapy, with the aim of facilitating neurological recovery. Preliminary findings were promising, prompting the FDA to award Breakthrough Device designation to BrainQ’s device in 2021.

BrainQ’s developers see the device’s potential for a flexible therapy continuum, from acute care to rehabilitation and post-discharge for home use. “Being able to stay engaged in therapy throughout the recovery process is a unique aspect of the EMAGINE study,”

pointed out Dr. Androwis. “Participants can access this experimental therapy from home, under the supervision of a trained caregiver and remote monitoring by a member of the study team.”

We are delighted to have true leaders in rehabilitation research and clinical care, including the Kessler Foundation and the Kessler Institute, as our partners in the EMAGINE trial. Together, we are striving to achieve our common goal: to transform the future of stroke rehabilitation by restoring lost mobility through innovative technology applied to home solutions.”


Yotam Drechsler, CEO of BrainQ

Eligible participants are recruited from the Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation, a Select Medical inpatient rehabilitation hospital that provides rehabilitative care for stroke and other disabling conditions. The Kessler study team assesses the eligibility of patients hospitalized for stroke rehabilitation.

The study is funded by BrainQ, developer of the experimental device.

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Lab-grown red blood cells used for mini-transfusion by Cambridge researchers in trial that could transform treatments https://vetclinpathjournal.org/lab-grown-red-blood-cells-used-for-mini-transfusion-by-cambridge-researchers-in-trial-that-could-transform-treatments/ Fri, 18 Nov 2022 07:45:00 +0000 https://vetclinpathjournal.org/lab-grown-red-blood-cells-used-for-mini-transfusion-by-cambridge-researchers-in-trial-that-could-transform-treatments/

Two people have been transfused with lab-grown red blood cells in a first global trial involving Cambridge researchers.

If proven safe and effective, engineered red blood cells could revolutionize treatments for patients with blood disorders such as sickle cell disease and those with rare blood types, for which it is difficult to find suitable matches.

Chief investigator Professor Cedric Ghevaert, professor of transfusion medicine and consultant haematologist at the University of Cambridge and NHS Blood and Transplant, said: ‘We hope our lab-grown red blood cells will last longer than those from of blood donors. If our trial, the first of its kind in the world, is successful, it will mean that patients who currently need regular long-term blood transfusions will need fewer transfusions in the future, helping to transform their care.

red blood cells

The manufactured blood cells were grown from donor stem cells and transfused into volunteers in the RESTORE randomized controlled clinical trial, which involves a number of partners.

Professor Ashley Toye, Professor of Cell Biology at the University of Bristol and Director of the NIHR Blood and Transplant Unit in Red Blood Cell Products, said: “This challenging and exciting trial is a huge stepping stone for manufacturing blood from stem cells. This is the first time that lab grown blood from an allogeneic donor has been transfused and we are excited to see how well the cells are performing at the end of the clinical trial.

When patients receive a standard donation, they receive red blood cells of different ages. But the lab-grown cells are all fresh, so they should work better and potentially last longer, which would mean fewer transfusions for patients who regularly need blood. This would reduce the risk of iron overload due to frequent transfusions, which can lead to serious complications.

Although the trial is a step towards the future availability of laboratory-grown red blood cells as a clinical product, for the foreseeable future engineered cells can only be used for a very small number of patients with very complex needs, which means that blood donations remain of crucial importance.

Co-lead researcher Dr Rebecca Cardigan, NHS Blood and Transplant Component Development Lead and Affiliate Lecturer at the University of Cambridge, said: ‘It’s really fantastic that we are now able to grow enough medical grade red blood cells to allow this trial to begin. We are really looking forward to seeing the results and knowing if they work better than standard red blood cells.

No adverse effects have yet been reported in the two healthy volunteers involved in the NIHR BioResource who received laboratory-grown red blood cells. The amount of lab-grown cells infused into the assay ranges from approximately 5ml to 10ml – one to two teaspoons.

To grow them, the stem cells were separated from blood donated to the trial and then used to grow red blood cells in a laboratory at the NHS Blood and Transplant Advanced Therapies Unit in Bristol.

At least 10 participants will receive two mini-transfusions at least four months apart, one of donated standard red blood cells and the other of lab-grown red blood cells, to find out if young red blood cells made in the lab last longer than the cells made in the body.

Further trials will be necessary before any clinical use.

John James, chief executive of the Sickle Cell Society, said: “This research offers real hope for difficult-to-transfuse sickle cell patients who have developed antibodies against most donor blood types. However, it should not be forgotten that the NHS still needs 250 blood donations every day to treat people with sickle cell disease and this figure is increasing. The need for normal blood donations to provide the vast majority of blood transfusions will remain. We strongly encourage people of African and Caribbean descent to continue to register as blood donors and begin donating blood regularly.

Dr Farrukh Shah, Medical Director of Transfusion for NHS Blood and Transplant, said: “Patients who need regular or intermittent blood transfusions may develop antibodies against minor blood groups, making it more difficult to find blood. donor that can be transfused without the risk of a life-threatening reaction. This world-class research lays the foundation for making red blood cells that can be safely used to transfuse people with conditions like sickle cell disease. The need for normal blood donations to provide the vast majority of blood will remain. But the potential of this work to benefit difficult-to-transfuse patients is very significant.

The trial is a joint research initiative of NHS Blood and Transplant and the University of Bristol, in collaboration with the University of Cambridge, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, the NIHR Cambridge Clinical Research Facility and the Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. It is partially funded by a grant from the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR).


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Experts explain the ‘perfect storm’ of endemic RSV and influenza https://vetclinpathjournal.org/experts-explain-the-perfect-storm-of-endemic-rsv-and-influenza/ Tue, 15 Nov 2022 20:05:18 +0000 https://vetclinpathjournal.org/experts-explain-the-perfect-storm-of-endemic-rsv-and-influenza/

The headlines of the past few weeks are sounding the alarm about earlier and more serious events flu (influenza) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) outbreaks compared to previous years. Add COVID-19 to the mix and you have a dangerous mix of viruses for which many experts are urging caution and seeking explanations.

RSV and influenza “certainly get more attention, and they get more attention for two reasons,” said William Schaffner, MD, professor of preventive medicine and infectious diseases at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine in Nashville.

“The first is that they’re both extraordinarily early. The second is that they’re both spreading very, very quickly,” he said. Medscape Medical News.

RSV generally follows a seasonal pattern with peak cases in January and February. The two viruses tend to hit different parts of the country at different times, and that’s not the case in 2022.

“This is particularly striking for RSV, which usually does not affect the whole country simultaneously,” Schaffner said.

“Yes, RSV is causing far more hospitalizations and earlier than any season previously recorded in the United States,” according Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) figures on RSV hospitalizations, said Kevin Messacar, MD, PhD, associate professor at the University of Colorado School of Medicine and pediatric infectious disease specialist at Children’s Hospital Colorado in Aurora.

Although there may be some increase in diagnoses due to heightened awareness, the rise in RSV and influenza cases “is a real phenomenon for multiple reasons,” said Peter Chin-Hong, MD, professor at the University of California, San Francisco, Division of Health. infectious diseases.

With fewer COVID restrictions, people are moving more. Also, in the fall and winter, people tend to congregate indoors. Colder temperatures and lower humidity also contribute, Chin-Hong said, because “the droplets are just lighter.

“I think those are all factors,” he said. Medscape Medical News.

Paul Auwaerter, MD, MBA, agreed that there are likely several causes for the unusual timing and severity of RSV and influenza this year.

“Behavioral change is a major cause,” said the clinical director of the division of infectious diseases at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore. More people returning to the workplace and children going to school without masks are examples, he added.

Less exposure to these three viruses also means there was less immune enhancement among existing populations, he said. This may lead to “larger susceptible populations, particularly infants and young children, due to the relative absence of circulating virus in recent years.”

A leading theory

Are we paying a price now for people who follow government decrees to mask up, stand out, and take other personal and public health precautions during the COVID-19 pandemic?

It’s possible, but it may not be the whole story.

“When it comes to RSV, I think the theory of isolation, social distancing, mask-wearing, and not attending school is very valid,” Schaffner said. “It’s everyone’s favorite [reason].”

He said he was confident the rise in RSV cases was due to previous COVID public health protections. However, he is “a bit more cautious about the flu, partly because the flu is so variable.

“As the flu people say, if you’ve seen a flu season, you’ve seen a flu season,” Schaffner said.

“There are a lot of debates,” he added. “No one can say for sure whether the immune deficiency or debt is a consequence of not having been stimulated and restimulated by the influenza virus for the past two seasons.”

“A Perfect Storm”

“Now you kind of have the perfect storm,” Chin-Hong said. “It’s not a good situation for COVID with the variants emerging. For flu, having not seen much flu in the last 2 years, we are probably more susceptible to infection.”

RSV cases increased in the summer of 2021, but now the weather is colder and people are interacting more closely. “And it’s very, very transmissible,” he said.

Chin-Hong also predicted that “even if we don’t have much COVID now, COVID will probably pick up again.”

The increase in RSV was unexpected by some experts. “This early flu is also a bit of a surprise and may be influenced by the fact that many of us come back and see each other up close, face to face in many closed environments,” Schaffner said.

He estimated that the 2022-2023 flu season started 4-6 weeks earlier “and took off like a rocket. It started in the southeast, quickly spread to the southwest and on the east coast. . I’m sure to go to the west coast if I haven’t already.”

A phenomenon by another name

Some refer to the situation as “immunity debt”, while others refer to it as “immunity break” or “immunity deficit”. Many doctors and immunologists have taken to social media to postpone the term “immunity debt”, claiming it is a misinterpretation that is being used to vilify COVID precautions, such as masking, social distancing and other protective measures taken during the pandemic.

“I prefer the term ‘immunity gap’…which is more established in the epidemiological literature, especially given how people have politicized the term ‘immunity debt’ recently,” Messacar said.

“For me, immune deficiency is a scientific observation, not a political argument,” he added.

In a Publication July 2022 in The LancetMessacar and colleagues stated that “decreasing exposure to endemic viruses has created an immune gap – a group of susceptible individuals who have avoided infection and therefore lack pathogen-specific immunity to protect against a future infection Decreased childhood vaccinations with pandemic disruptions in health care contribute to this immune deficiency for vaccine-preventable diseases, such as influenza, measlesand polio.”

The researchers noted that due to isolation during the pandemic, older children and newborns are being exposed to RSV for the first time. Going back to birthday parties, playing with friends, and going to school without a mask means “kids are exposed to RSV, and that’s probably why RSV is moving early and very, very noticeably in this now expanded pool of susceptible children,” Schaffner said.

What is the likelihood of co-infections?

With spikes in RSV, influenza, and COVID-19 cases each expected in the coming months, how likely is a person to get sick with more than one infection at the same time?

Early in the pandemic, co-infection with COVID and influenza was reported in people in some West Coast centers, Auwaerter said. Now, however, “the unpredictable nature of Omicron subvariants and the potential for further change, together with the never-before-seen significant decrease in influenza over 2 years, leaves little predictability.

“I think it’s less likely, given the extent of current immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in the population,” Auwaerter said.

“I worry most about viral co-infections … in people with compromised immune systems if we have high community rates of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza circulating this fall and winter,” he said. he adds.

Studies conducted during the pandemic suggest that co-infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus and another respiratory virus has been be rare Where non-existent.

Schaffner said these findings align with his experience at Vanderbilt University, which is part of a CDC-sponsored network that tracks lab-confirmed RSV, influenza and COVID cases among hospitalized people. “Co-infections are, at least to date, very unusual.”

There must be an asterisk next to it, Schaffner added. “Looking back over the last 2 years, we’ve had very little flu and we’ve had shortened RSV seasons, so there hasn’t been a lot of opportunity for double infections to occur.

“So this year might be more telling as we move forward,” he said.

Future concerns

The future is uncertain, wrote Messacar and his colleagues in The Lancet“Crucially, the patterns of these recurrent viral outbreaks have been heterogeneous across locations, populations and pathogens, making predictions and preparations difficult.”

Chin-Hong used a horse racing analogy to illustrate the current and future situation. RSV is the lead horse and the flu is late but trying to catch up. “And then COVID is the dark horse. He’s behind the race at the moment – but all these variants give the horse extra extras.

“And the COVID horse is probably going to be very competitive with the favorite,” he said.

“We’re only at the start of the race right now,” Chin-Hong said, “that’s why we’re worried that these three [viruses] will be even more pronounced later in the year.”

Follow Damian McNamara on Twitter: @MedReporter. For more information about Medscape Neurology, join us on Facebook and Twitter.

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PIMS hospital operating without a forensic laboratory https://vetclinpathjournal.org/pims-hospital-operating-without-a-forensic-laboratory/ Sat, 12 Nov 2022 06:08:45 +0000 https://vetclinpathjournal.org/pims-hospital-operating-without-a-forensic-laboratory/

ISLAMABAD:

The Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), the largest public sector hospital in the federal capital, operates without a forensic laboratory to determine the causes of serious and accidental deaths.

Sources said unqualified doctors run the affairs of the hospital’s forensic department.

According to available documents, the forensic department at PIMS Hospital is in complete disarray and the hospital lacks a dedicated forensic laboratory to determine the cause of death shrouded in mystery.

According to sources, autopsy reports of serious and accidental cases are sent back to Lahore for forensic testing due to lack of qualified forensic pathologists at PIMS Hospital.

Speaking to the media earlier, Federal Health Minister Abdul Qadir Patel also admitted the absence of the dedicated forensic laboratory at the PIMS Hospital, saying that it will be set up shortly.

In February 2022, the PIMS Supplementary MLO sent a letter to the Medical Director requesting the appointment of forensic experts, but no progress was made in this regard, the sources said.

The letter from the unqualified doctors ran the business of the forensic department, pointing out that none of the officers had an advanced degree in forensic medicine to qualify for the position of medical examiner.

Interestingly, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar and Hyderabad have forensic experts but the federal capital lacks laboratory and forensic experts.

The sources said that the absence of forensic laboratory and experts in Islamabad also delayed the timely obtaining of autopsy reports of the late journalist Arshad Sharif, the daughter-in-law of senior journalist Ayaz Amir, Sara Inam and Noor Muqqadam.

The sources said lab reports of most cases and evidence is often missing from the hospital’s forensic department.

PIMS director Dr Khalid Masood said the hospital has forensic experts but lacks machinery and a dedicated lab to gather quick results.

He said that the government can take action in this regard and the Minister of Health assured that they were working in this regard.

He said that the medical university should have a forensic laboratory instead of the PIMS hospital.

Sources also said that without a forensic laboratory for various tests, Islamabad police still rely on conventional investigations, which often yield inferior or compromised results.

The sources said that in forgery, sexual assault and narcotics cases, police struggled to conduct full investigations without the possibility of forensic testing.

Published in The Express Tribune, November 12e2022.

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International Day of Pathology is celebrated this week https://vetclinpathjournal.org/international-day-of-pathology-is-celebrated-this-week/ Thu, 10 Nov 2022 07:21:23 +0000 https://vetclinpathjournal.org/international-day-of-pathology-is-celebrated-this-week/

INTERNATIONAL Pathology Day takes place every year, the second week of November.

Pathologists don’t just perform autopsies – these medical providers also perform laboratory tests that help them diagnose and detect disease through the study of human tissues and bodily fluids.

Most pathologists train in clinical and anatomical pathology, but may specialize in clinical pathology, which is the study of blood and body fluids, or anatomic pathology, which includes tissues, organs and tumors, cytopathology, which involves cellular changes, forensic medecine, being the performance of autopsies, and molecular pathology, that is, the study of genes and genetics.

READ ALSO : 16 Days of Activism: Ask for Help with Lifeline

The history of the International Day of Pathology

The Royal College of Pathologists launched International Day of Pathology eight years ago, in 2014. The Royal College is a UK organization with a large national and international membership. It hosts an annual conference on this day with the aim of educating and expressing ideas and knowledge.

The Royal College has chosen the theme “Pathology: Past, Present and Future” for 2022 and moved its official celebration of the day to June, to coincide with its Diamond Jubilee. A conference was held at the beginning of November on the theme “Adapting laboratory medicine to global developments and challenges”.

READ ALSO : Pinetown SAPS Station gets a makeover

The SA pathology department we all know

A provider of clinical pathology services that all South Africans are familiar with is SANBS or the South African National Blood Service.

This NPO supplies blood and blood products across the country. Blood Donor Clinics are located nationwide and perform the essential service of collecting whole blood, plasma and platelet donations and distributing them to those who need them most.

Whole blood donations are used for trauma patients and truly give them the gift of life. As only 1% of the country’s inhabitants donate blood, every drop is a precious resource. A whole blood donation can save up to three lives.

Plasma is the liquid part of blood, in which red and white blood cells and platelets are suspended, constituting about 55% of the volume. Factors found in plasma are made into drugs used to treat rare chronic diseases and disorders and cases of burns, trauma and shock.

Platelets are fragments of cells in the blood, which accumulate at an injury site to prevent bleeding. Platelets are used in the treatment of certain cancers, marrow and organ transplants, surgery, trauma and aplastic anemia.

Anyone can donate blood if they weigh more than 50 kg, between the ages of 16 and 65, in good health, lead a low-risk life and have eaten within the previous four hours.

Westwood Mall Donor Collection Clinic is open seven days a week: Monday to Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Saturday from 8:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. and Sunday from 9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.

Information: 031 719 6841.

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Benjamin Goldman-Israelow, MD, PhD https://vetclinpathjournal.org/benjamin-goldman-israelow-md-phd/ Mon, 07 Nov 2022 11:31:02 +0000 https://vetclinpathjournal.org/benjamin-goldman-israelow-md-phd/

As part of our “Meet Yale Internal Medicine” series, we feature Benjamin Goldman-Israelow, MD, PhD, assistant professor of medicine and former resident of the ABIM Physician-Scientist research pathway.

Since joining Yale School of Medicine in 2019, Goldman-Israela physician-scientist interested in virology and immunology, established himself in Yale’s COVID-19 studies because of his ability to translate between research and patient care.

“I’m a very curious person, so science was a natural fit for me,” Goldman-Israelow said. “However, seeing patients is what drives me to try to understand viruses, how they cause disease and how we can create cures or vaccines to treat them.”

Path to Yale

Goldman-Israelow received her MD from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, where her research focused on understanding how different aspects of the immune system regulate the hepatitis C virus. in 2016, he came to Yale School of Medicine as part of Yale’s ABIM Physician-Scientist Research Pathway, a short two-year fellowship training for residents who are heavily committed to research careers.

Goldman-Israelow says he was attracted to Yale’s combined residency and fellowship program because of the outstanding history and reputation of the Infectious Diseases Section of the Department of Internal Medicine and the Department of immunobiology, as well as the favorable and stimulating environment of the department of internal medicine.

During an interview for the program, he met Akiko Iwasaki, PhD, Sterling Professor of Immunobiology and Professor of Dermatology and Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology and Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases), and Researcher, Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Iwasaki is leading several studies of immune defense mechanisms against viruses that enter through mucosal surfaces. Goldman-Israelow’s desire to work with Iwasaki cemented her decision to pursue post-doctoral research at Yale.

Continuing research on SARS-CoV-2

Goldman-Israelow joined Iwasaki’s lab in August 2019, working on models of inflammatory pathologies based on viral infection. Five months into his new post, the first cases of COVID-19 were reported in Wuhan, China.

“We quickly saw that this virus was not going to be a localized or controlled phenomenon,” Goldman-Israelow said. “We saw cases popping up around the world, and then the real wake-up call was when Italy was besieged by the virus in February 2020. But by then we already knew it was something something we had to work on.”

Goldman-Israelow and his team quickly developed a new preclinical model to further research SARS-CoV-2, which led to the first of several of his first-author publications in Iwasaki’s lab. His model showed that the type 1 interferon system, the body’s innate immune system that is encoded in the human genome, is inadequate to limit SARS-CoV-2 replication.

“COVID has come at a very interesting time in science, where we have a ton of tools to quickly understand what’s going on in both preclinical models and in humans,” Goldman-Israelow said. “Traditionally, it was more difficult to do human research because we didn’t have enough patients. During the COVID pandemic, we unfortunately had millions of people who were affected by the same disease at the same time. I think the pandemic came at a time when we could really dig into this and study both virology and human immunology.

Develop a new vaccine strategy

Goldman-Israelow’s most recent project focused on developing a new vaccine strategy, “Prime and Spike.” This intranasal vaccine is designed to prevent transmission of the COVID-19 virus by recruiting antibodies and memory T cells to the airways. “The idea is that we can try to prevent replication before it has a chance to take hold, and higher levels of antibodies at the initial site of infection may have broader efficacy against the new emerging variants,” he explained.

The originality and significance of Goldman-Israelow’s research, which he pursued despite demanding clinical responsibilities during the pandemic, led to his promotion from trainee to instructor in medicine in June 2021. He is also a recipient of the Department of Internal Medicine 2022 Iva Dostanic Physician -Trainee Award, an annual award that recognizes trainees with an exceptional passion for science and clinical care. In August 2022, he was promoted to assistant professor in the section of infectious diseases. He plans to continue his research on COVID-19 and other emerging respiratory pathogens with his own lab.

In his spare time, Goldman-Israelow enjoys being with his wife and their two young children, cooking, gardening, skiing and biking. “I found that to be a great part of living in New Haven — you can get on your bike and be on farmland within about 10 miles,” he said.

The Infectious Diseases Section of the Department of Internal Medicine engages in a wide range of patient care, research, and educational activities. To learn more about their work, visit Infectious diseases.

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Intra-individual comparison of 18F sodium fluoride PET-CT and 99mTc bone scan with SPECT in patients with prostate cancer or breast cancer at high risk of bone metastases (MITNEC -A1): a phase 3 multicentre trial https://vetclinpathjournal.org/intra-individual-comparison-of-18f-sodium-fluoride-pet-ct-and-99mtc-bone-scan-with-spect-in-patients-with-prostate-cancer-or-breast-cancer-at-high-risk-of-bone-metastases-mitnec-a1-a-phase-3-multi/ Fri, 04 Nov 2022 23:45:49 +0000 https://vetclinpathjournal.org/intra-individual-comparison-of-18f-sodium-fluoride-pet-ct-and-99mtc-bone-scan-with-spect-in-patients-with-prostate-cancer-or-breast-cancer-at-high-risk-of-bone-metastases-mitnec-a1-a-phase-3-multi/

Background

The detection of bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer or breast cancer remains a major clinical challenge. We sought to compare the diagnostic performance of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) Single Photon Emission CT (SPECT) and 18Sodium F-fluoride (18F-NaF) PET–CT for the detection of bone metastases in patients with high-risk prostate or breast cancer.

Methods

MITNEC-A1 was a prospective, multicenter, single-cohort, phase 3 trial conducted at ten hospitals in Canada. Patients aged 18 years or older with breast or prostate cancer with a WHO performance status of 0 to 2 and at high risk or with clinical suspicion of bone metastases, but without previously documented bone involvement, were eligible.
18F-NaF PET–CT and 99mTc-MDP SPECT were performed within 14 days of each other for each participant. Two independent examiners interpreted each modality blind to other imaging findings. The primary endpoint was the overall accuracy of 99mTc-MDP SPECT and 18F-NaF PET–CT scans for the detection of bone metastases in the per-protocol population. A combination of histopathological, clinical, and imaging follow-up for up to 24 months was used as the gold standard to assess imaging findings. Safety was assessed in all enrolled participants. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01930812and is complete.

Results

Between July 11, 2014 and March 3, 2017, 290 patients were screened, of whom 288 were recruited (64 participants with breast cancer and 224 with prostate cancer). 261 participants underwent both 18F-NaF PET–CT and 99mTc-MDP SPECT and performed the tracking required for statistical analysis. The median follow-up was 735 days (IQR 727–750). According to the reference methods used, 109 (42%) of the 261 patients had bone metastases. In patient-based analysis, 18F-NaF PET–CT was more accurate than 99mTc-MDP TEMP (84 3% [95% CI 79·9–88·7] versus 77 4% [72·3–82·5]difference 6 9% [95% CI 1·3–12·5]; p=0 016). No adverse event was reported for the 288 patients recruited.

Interpretation

18F-NaF has the potential to displace 99mTc-MDP as the bone imaging radiopharmaceutical of choice in patients with high-risk prostate or breast cancer.

Funding

Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

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Fighting antimicrobial resistance does not involve miracle drugs https://vetclinpathjournal.org/fighting-antimicrobial-resistance-does-not-involve-miracle-drugs/ Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:42 +0000 https://vetclinpathjournal.org/fighting-antimicrobial-resistance-does-not-involve-miracle-drugs/
Antibiotic sensitivity test. [iStockphoto]

Africa, like other continents, has a problem with antimicrobial resistance (AMR). But Africa stands out because it has not invested in the capacity and resources to determine the extent of the problem, or how to solve it.

To start, consider Staphylococcus aureus, which is the source of a skin infection that can become fatal if combated with medication.

Estimates of the most common resistant variation, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), exceed 100,000 deaths worldwide in 2019.

But until recently, we didn’t have a good idea of ​​the scale of the problem of MRSA – or any other antimicrobial resistant pathogen – in Africa.

It turns out that after testing 187,000 samples from 14 countries for antibiotic resistance, scientists found that 40% of all staph infections were MRSA, but we still don’t know what causes the bacteria. becomes resistant, nor the extent of the problem. .

We don’t take RAM seriously, perhaps because it’s not glamorous or relevant.

There is nothing fancy or futuristic about the technology we currently use to identify resistant pathogens. The fight against AMR doesn’t involve miracle drugs, expensive treatments, or fancy diagnostic tests. Instead, we have bacteria and other pathogens that are commonplace and we’ve learned to ignore the good old drugs that used to work.

The global health and pharmaceutical industries do not appear to view solving this problem as cost-effective compared to the speed with which vaccines for Covid-19 have been found with government-funded diagnostics to end the disease. pandemic.

Why can’t the same be done for antimicrobial resistance, when the World Health Organization (WHO) has repeatedly declared antimicrobial resistance to be a global health priority – one of the top threats for 21st century public health?

A recent study estimated that in 2019 nearly 1.3 million people died from antimicrobial resistant bacterial infections, with Africa bearing the highest burden of deaths. A high prevalence of AMR has also been identified in foodborne pathogens isolated from animals and animal products in Africa.

Collectively, these numbers suggest that the burden of AMR could be on par with – or greater than – that of HIV or Covid-19. The growing threat of antimicrobial resistance will likely weigh heavily on African health systems, but the lack of accurate information on antimicrobial resistance limits our ability to understand how commonly used antimicrobials actually work.

It also means that we cannot determine the drivers of RAM infections and design effective interventions in response.

Data from our recent project on many of the scariest pathogens across 14 countries has provided insight into the underdetected and underreported depth of Africa’s AMR crisis. Less than two percent of medical laboratories in the 14 countries surveyed can perform bacteriological testing, even with conventional methods developed more than 30 years ago.

While strengthened staffing is essential, many health facilities in Africa face interrupted access to electricity, poor connectivity and persistent severe labor shortages.

Containing AMR means we need to fix African health systems. The work begins now.

-Dr Pascale Ondoa is the Director of Science and New Initiatives of the African Society for Laboratory Medicine and Dr Yewande Alimi is the AMR Program Coordinator of the African Center for Disease Control.

Related Topics

]]> Bionano Genomics Announces Extensive Range of Content to https://vetclinpathjournal.org/bionano-genomics-announces-extensive-range-of-content-to/ Fri, 28 Oct 2022 12:00:00 +0000 https://vetclinpathjournal.org/bionano-genomics-announces-extensive-range-of-content-to/

  • Dr Alka Chaubey, Chief Medical Officer at Bionano, Dr Nikhil Sahajpal, Greenwood Genetic Center, Dr. Rashmi Kanagal-Shamanna, MD Anderson and Dr. Adam Smith Cancer Center, The University Health Network will host a sponsored supplier presentation on studies that include multiple types of hematological malignancies and highlight the benefits of combining optical genome mapping (OGM) with next-generation sequencing (NGS) to maximize actionable outcomes
  • A scientific presentation with Dr. Chaubey, Dr. Kanagal-Shamanna, Dr. Ravindra Kolhe, Augusta University, and Dr. Christopher Lum, Queens Medical Center wsick cover methodologies for homologous recombination deficiency (HRD), including NGS, microarray and GMO, as well as bioinformatics approaches for the analysis of solid tumor and hematological malignancies data
  • A plenary session will feature Dr. Smith giving a presentation on the implementation of long-read sequencing (LRS) and GMO for cytogenetic research, and will be immediately followed by a panel discussion on the use of new tools, including GMO, in the next generation cytogenomics, with Dr. Smith, Dr. Eric Duncavage, Washington University School of Medicine, Dr. Yassmine Akkari, National Children’s Hospital and Dr. Robert Hasserjian, Massachusetts General Hospital
  • Eleven scientific posters presenting the results of GMO applications in prenatal and postnatal analysis, research on solid tumors and hematological malignancies will be presented at the conference

SAN DIEGO, Oct. 28, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Bionano Genomics, Inc. (Nasdaq: BNGO) today announced its participation in the 2022 Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP) Annual Meeting and Expo. with a wide range of content covering optics the usefulness of genome mapping (GMO) for research applications including prenatal and postnatal analysis, genetic diseases and hematological malignancies.

The AMP annual meeting brings together professionals from industry, medicine and academia to discuss advances in the field of molecular diagnostics. The AMP Conference will be held November 1-5, 2022 in Phoenix, Arizona.

Scientific presentations and poster sessions by Bionano and collaborators include:

Session Title Presenter Present
Corporate workshop Maximizing the detection of pathogenic structural variants in hematological malignancies using optical genome mapping Chaubey A., Sahajpal N., Kanagal-Shamanna R., Smith A. November 2, 2022
9:00 a.m. to 9:50 a.m. PDT
Room 229 AB
Corporate workshop Comprehensive HRD Assessment from Next Generation Sequencing and Optical Genome Mapping Chaubey A., Kanagal-Shamanna R., Kolhe R., Lum C. November 2, 2022
10:00-10:50 a.m. PDT
Room 229 AB
Plenary session Implementing Long-Read Sequencing and Optical Genome Mapping in the Cytogenetics Lab Smith A. November 4, 2022
3:45-5:15 p.m. PDT
See program for location
Plenary session Next generation cytogenomics Smith A., Ducavage E., Akkari Y., Hasserjian R. November 4, 2022
3:45-5:15 p.m. PDT
See program for location
Poster title Author/ Affiliation
Paired posters: Friday, November 4 | 9:15 a.m. – 10:15 a.m.

Odd Posters: Saturday, November 5 | 9:15 a.m. – 10:15 a.m.

Are we using the right tools to calculate homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) scores? Kolhe Laboratory
Augusta University
Compound Heterozygous Events in Myeloid Tumors: Next-Generation Approach with Optical Genome Mapping and a 523-Gene NGS Panel Kolhe Laboratory
Augusta University
Mosaic structural variation detection with optical genome mapping: investigation of the lower limit of detection Kolhe Laboratory
Augusta University
Bringing new technology to the CLIA lab: Our experience in clinical validation, obtaining the AMA PLA code and the Moldx Z code for optical genome mapping for the evaluation of hematological neoplasms Kolhe Laboratory
Augusta University
Beyond karyotyping and FISH: impact of optical genome mapping (OGM) with additional clinically relevant information in 75 cases of hematological malignancies Kolhe Laboratory
Augusta University
Optical Genome Mapping: A Potential Level I Test for Prenatal Diagnostic Testing Kolhe Laboratory
Augusta University
Clinical validation of optical genome mapping for postnatal application Kolhe Laboratory
Augusta University
Retrospective genome optical mapping analysis of FSHD1 and 2 negative patients with decreased methylation revealed SMCHD1 exon deletions Stence Lab
University of Iowa
NGS Copy Number Signatures in the Evaluation of Cancers of Unknown Origin: Targeting Therapy Lum Laboratory
Queens Medical Center
Higher resolution and precise determination of the breakpoint of a balanced translocation by optical genome mapping Serrano M.
Bionano Laboratories
Optical Genome Mapping Workflow for Somatic Abnormality Detection in Multiple Solid Tumor Types YuJ.
Bionano Genomics

“We are delighted to see the highest number of presentations featuring GMOs at AMP this year, demonstrating the utility of GMOs for cutting-edge research applications in molecular pathology. We are also excited to see sessions and posters covering combining GMO data with NGS data to provide a more complete picture of the genome,” commented Erik Holmlin, President and CEO of Bionano.

More details about the conference can be found here.

About Bionano Genomics

Bionano Genomics is a provider of genome analysis solutions that can enable researchers and clinicians to find answers to complex questions in biology and medicine. The company’s mission is to transform the way the world views the genome through GMO solutions, diagnostic services and software. The company offers GMO solutions for applications in basic, translational and clinical research. Through its business Lineagen, Inc. d/b/a Bionano Laboratories, the company also provides diagnostic tests for patients with clinical presentations consistent with autism spectrum disorders and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Through its BioDiscovery business, the company also offers a leading-edge, platform-independent software solution that integrates next-generation sequencing and microarray data designed to provide analysis, visualization, interpretation and a report of copy number variants, single nucleotide variants and absence of heterozygosity across the genome in a consolidated view. For more information, visit www.bionanogenomics.com, www.bionanolaboratories.com Where www.biodiscovery.com

Bionano Genomics Forward-Looking Statements

This press release may contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements include statements regarding our intentions, beliefs, projections, prospects, analyzes or current expectations regarding, among other things, the ability and the utility of GMO to complement next-generation sequencing (NGS) and provide more comprehensive analysis of the genome for applications in genetic disease and cancer research. Each of these forward-looking statements involves risks and uncertainties. Actual results or developments may differ materially from those projected or implied by such forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause such a difference include the risks and uncertainties associated with: the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business and the global economy; general market conditions; changes in the competitive landscape and the introduction of competitive technologies or enhancements to existing technologies; OGM’s inability to achieve meaningful complementarity with NGS; failure to adopt GMOs for research applications; the ability of our GMO solutions to deliver the expected benefits and contributions to research areas reported in the presentations given and posters made available at the 2022 AMP Annual Meeting and Expo; results of future studies contradicting findings reported in presentations given and posters made available at the 2022 AMP Annual Meeting and Expo; changes in our strategic and business plans; our ability to obtain sufficient financing to fund our strategic plans and marketing efforts; the ability of medical and research institutions to obtain funding to support the adoption or continued use of our technologies; and the risks and uncertainties associated with our business and financial condition generally, including the risks and uncertainties described in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, including, without limitation, our annual report on form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 and in other filings subsequently filed by us with the Securities and Exchange Commission. All forward-looking statements contained in this press release speak only as of the date they are made and are based on management’s assumptions and estimates as of that date. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of the receipt of new information, the occurrence of future events or otherwise.

CONTACTS
Company Contact:
Erik Holmlin, CEO
Bionano Genomics, Inc.
+1 (858) 888-7610
eholmlin@bionanogenomics.com

Investor Relations:
Amy Conrad
tip of the juniper
+1 (858) 366-3243
amy@juniper-point.com

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