Clinical pathology – Vet Clin Path Journal http://vetclinpathjournal.org/ Sat, 25 Sep 2021 17:02:26 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 https://vetclinpathjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/cropped-icon-32x32.png Clinical pathology – Vet Clin Path Journal http://vetclinpathjournal.org/ 32 32 First digital AI pathology approved for prostate cancer https://vetclinpathjournal.org/first-digital-ai-pathology-approved-for-prostate-cancer/ https://vetclinpathjournal.org/first-digital-ai-pathology-approved-for-prostate-cancer/#respond Sat, 25 Sep 2021 14:48:41 +0000 https://vetclinpathjournal.org/first-digital-ai-pathology-approved-for-prostate-cancer/

Source: Free-Photos / Pixabay

Artificial Intelligence (AI) machine learning is rapidly transforming healthcare by powering new diagnostic tools for clinicians and healthcare professionals. In a landmark move this week, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cleared the marketing of an AI machine learning software called Paige Prostate, the first approved AI-based software that identifies the prostate cancer to help pathologists.

The FDA De Novo pre-market review process is for new types of low to moderate risk devices. With FDA approval from De Novo, the new device is cleared for sale in accordance with regulatory controls.

“Authorizing this AI-based software may help increase the number of prostate biopsy samples identified with cancerous tissue, which may ultimately save lives,” said Tim Stenzel, MD, Ph. D., director of the Office of In Vitro Diagnostics and Radiological Health at the FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health in a statement.

Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in American men, second only to skin cancer. According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), about 1 in 8 men in the United States will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime. In addition, the ACS estimates that by 2021, prostate cancer will cause more than 34,000 deaths with more than 248,000 new cases in the United States. According to the ACS, about 1 in 41 American men will die of prostate cancer. It is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men after lung cancer.

“Pathologists examine daily biopsies of tissue suspected of disease, such as prostate cancer. Identifying areas of concern in the biopsy image can help pathologists make a diagnosis that informs appropriate treatment, ”said Stenzel.

According to the FDA statement, the study used data from 16 pathologists reviewing 527 scanned prostate biopsy slide images that were scanned. Of the slides, 356 were benign and 171 were cancerous. Each of the slides was evaluated twice by pathologists, once with the help of Paige Prostate and once without.

The clinical study submitted to the FDA showed that pathologists using Paige Prostate increased performance by more than seven percentage points in accuracy, from 89.5% to 96.8% for cancer detection. In addition, the clinical study showed that non-specialist pathologists were as precise as prostate specialists who did not use the software.

With this new FDA approval, AI-based software is making significant progress in shaping the future of assistive tools for disease detection.

Copyright © 2021 Cami Rosso All rights reserved.

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Pharmacists Can Play a Critical Role in Improving Healthcare Delivery in India, Health News, ET HealthWorld https://vetclinpathjournal.org/pharmacists-can-play-a-critical-role-in-improving-healthcare-delivery-in-india-health-news-et-healthworld/ https://vetclinpathjournal.org/pharmacists-can-play-a-critical-role-in-improving-healthcare-delivery-in-india-health-news-et-healthworld/#respond Sat, 25 Sep 2021 08:00:00 +0000 https://vetclinpathjournal.org/pharmacists-can-play-a-critical-role-in-improving-healthcare-delivery-in-india-health-news-et-healthworld/ By Nikkhil K Masurkar

Pharmacists are the 3rd largest group of healthcare professionals in the world. A majority of pharmacists in India are involved in community settings which serve as the initial level of contact between individuals in a community and healthcare. With an Indian pharmaceutical market expected to reach $ 21 billion by FY21, with a CAGR of 4.5% and drug sales registering significant growth over the past year, the role of pharmacists, which is content to dispense and distribute drugs and medical supplies, is expected to undergo a major change that will help fill the gaps in health care and contribute significantly to national health efforts. Even though pharmacists play a key role in improving care, it is unfortunate that the majority of patients find no difference between the grocer and the pharmacist. It is the need of the hour to make pharmacists an integral part of the health system to provide better health care.

How Pharmacists Can Improve Healthcare in India

The participation of pharmacists can play a vital role in the following areas of health care in the country:

Appropriate use of drugs

A pharmacist can give advice on the administration of medicines, give information on storage conditions and, if necessary, he can advise the patient. A pharmacist can be one of the essential members of healthcare delivery by guiding patients on the rational use of medicines by adhering to good pharmacy practices. Research has shown that when pharmacists explain medications to patients that are prescribed to them, it can dramatically increase patient knowledge about correct medication use by 56-90%.

Also, in India, nearly 70% of the population is deprived of essential medicines for various reasons including the unavailability of health professionals and inappropriate professional advice on the use of medicines. The current number of pharmacists in India can play an important role in improving access to medicines and their safe use.

Dietary advice

Community pharmacists can become an excellent source for ensuring adequate nutrition for patients by advising them on basic dietary needs, correcting unhealthy eating habits in children, suggesting a special diet for people with food allergies or diabetes. and participating in campaigns organized in rural areas to educate people on the need for a balanced and nutritious diet. Facts such as people who eat fish are less prone to stroke, symptoms of hyper vitaminosis can cause irregular menstrual cycle, nutraceuticals / dietary supplements can offer many health benefits and pharmacists can communicate this more to ensure better health.

Educate people about sexually transmitted diseases-AIDS

According to the latest government report (2019), India would have around 23.49 lakh of people living with HIV / AIDS (PLHIV) in 2019. The cost of antiretroviral therapy (ART) used to treat

HIV is quite expensive and beyond the reach of a large proportion of the population. Pharmacists can help prevent HIV / AIDS by raising awareness and providing information such as what HIV is, its transmission, risk factors, prevention methods, etc.

Personalization of pharmacotherapy

The personalization of drug therapy described as the personalization of drug selection and drug dosage for a given patient is one of the biggest trends in medicine today. When a physician is concerned with the patient’s diagnosis, he or she is not able to devote time to counseling the patient regarding drug information, pharmaco-economics and alternative therapies, moral support, etc. ., a pharmacist can provide advice to the patient. It can store details of patient history, allergies and other details needed for treatment so that the concept of drug therapy individualization can be implemented.

What needs to be done to increase pharmacist participation in health care

With a severe shortage of healthcare professionals and a lack of properly trained providers in India, maximizing the knowledge and skills of pharmacists can help fill gaps in healthcare and provide a platform for different levels of professional development. .

While in most cases it has been observed that pharmacists have the technical skills but often lack the basic knowledge necessary to make the most of their skills as health practitioners. Those who pursue their careers in pharmacy need to be trained in basic public health skills to effectively manage community health, the essential elements of program planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

With advancements in technology and innovation, implementation science is used to understand how to translate evidence into daily practice so that it can be used in all issues of public health, safety and security. drugs to mHealth. Implementation research can help provide the data needed by government to support the integration of pharmacists into public health services. be people across the country in resource-constrained settings.

In addition, there is an immediate need for double-trained professionals in pharmacy and public health. Although a small number of faculties of pharmacy in India offer dual degree programs with PharmD / MPH options, but overall, pharmacy students are only exposed to public health concepts momentarily. A handful of courses are devoted solely to public health in pharmacy, and there are hardly any textbooks to emphasize the role of pharmacy in public health. As a result, there is an urgent need for schools of pharmacy to integrate public health and pharmacoepidemiology courses into their curriculum and to train pharmacists as future public health professionals.

Final words

In the context of Indian healthcare, there is an underutilization of the practice of pharmacy and community pharmacy. Pharmacists working in community pharmacies do not provide advice to patients in the usual situation. Government and healthcare organizations need to work closely with pharmacist associations and share common experiences and develop appropriate guidelines so that the role of the pharmacist in providing better healthcare can be recognized.

By Nikkhil K Masurkar, Executive Director, ENTOD Pharma

(DISCLAIMER: Opinions expressed are solely those of the author and ETHealthworld.com does not necessarily endorse them. ETHealthworld.com will not be liable for any damages caused to any person / organization directly or indirectly.)

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Virtual awards ceremony gives recognition to outstanding faculty https://vetclinpathjournal.org/virtual-awards-ceremony-gives-recognition-to-outstanding-faculty/ https://vetclinpathjournal.org/virtual-awards-ceremony-gives-recognition-to-outstanding-faculty/#respond Fri, 24 Sep 2021 16:20:25 +0000 https://vetclinpathjournal.org/virtual-awards-ceremony-gives-recognition-to-outstanding-faculty/

Friday, September 24, 2021

A long-standing tradition of Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine of recognizing outstanding faculty at the annual conference Purdue Veterinary Conference continued in a virtual format in 2021. The annual September 10 awards ceremony included the presentation of the prestigious Raymond E. Plue Award for Outstanding Teacher as well as several other awards for faculty service, research and education. ‘education.

The Raymond E. Plue Outstanding Teacher Award is funded by an endowment established by Dr. Plue, a member of the DVM class of 1968, to recognize faculty members for their teaching ability as well as their role in fostering interest in research. To be considered for this honor, a faculty member must be nominated by veterinary alumni in the last five promotions. The 2021 recipient is Dr Darryl Ragland, Associate Professor of Food Animal Production Medicine in the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences and Head of the Production Medicine Section at Purdue University Veterinary Hospital.

Dr Ragland received his DMV from Tuskegee University before coming to Purdue for a residency in food animal medicine and surgery. After earning his doctorate, Dr. Ragland joined the Purdue School of Veterinary Medicine in 1999 as an Assistant Professor.

Dr. Ragland divides his time between clinical practice, teaching and research. Much of his research focuses on swine nutrition, although he recently published a study titled “Assessment of Biosecurity Policies and Practices for the Control of African Swine Fever Virus in Ukrainian Pig Farms”. To date, Dr. Ragland’s research has been published in 52 peer-reviewed publications.

Dr Ragland also has multiple teaching responsibilities at the college, including teaching medicine and nutrition in pig production to DVM students. In addition, Dr. Ragland has recently been heavily involved in the creation of a new food animal medicine course for which he is now a regular instructor. He also played a major role in the college’s breeding classes, working with Professor Emeritus Michael Hill. Additionally, Dr. Ragland has served as an academic advisor to 38 DVM students and served on graduate committees for over 30 graduate students.

In addition to the Plue Award, eight other faculty awards were presented during the Virtual Awards program. The awards recognized exceptional teaching, research and commitment. The awards and recipients are:

Dr. John Christian, Associate Professor of Veterinary Clinical Pathology in the Department of Comparative Pathobiology, and Section Director and Head of the Clinical Pathology Laboratory, received the Outstanding Alumni Teaching Award.

Alumni Faculty Excellence Award | Dr Ann Weil, Clinical Professor of Anesthesiology in the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences and Head of the Anesthesiology Section at Purdue University Veterinary Hospital

Nominations for this award are submitted by faculty and selection is made by a committee of faculty and alumni based on the candidate’s performance and contributions in research, academic or creative endeavors; instruction and related activities; and / or public and professional services and relations.

Zoetis Distinguished Teacher Award | Dr Kevin Hannon, Associate Professor of Basic Medical Sciences

This award is one of two selected based on an annual vote completed by Purdue veterinary students indicating the degree to which faculty members demonstrate superior ability to communicate selected material to students and stimulate their desire to master material, while being ready to help and motivate students as advice and guidance, formally or informally. The Zoetis Distinguished Teacher Award is presented annually to an outstanding teacher in every veterinary school in North America. Each award recipient is also eligible to compete for the national Zoetis Distinguished Teacher Award.

Marxa is pictured with her award plaque standing next to the Continuum sculpture in front of Lynn Hall
Dr. Marxa Figuiredo, Associate Professor of Basic Medical Sciences, received the 2021 Research Excellence Award.

Outstanding Alumni Teaching Award | Dr John Christian, Associate Professor of Veterinary Clinical Pathology and Director and Head of Section of Clinical Pathology Laboratory

This award is also selected on the basis of student vote and recognizes the recipient’s role in student success.

Excellence in Teaching Award | Dr Andrew Woolcock, Associate Professor of Small Animal Internal Medicine in the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences

The recipient of this award is chosen from nominations made by peers. The award includes $ 3,000 in funds to support university teaching activities.

Zoetis Prize for Excellence in Veterinary Research | Dr Maggie O’Haire, Associate Professor of Human-Animal Interaction at the Department of Comparative Pathobiology

This award recognizes faculty members for their role in generating new knowledge through basic and clinical research.

Excellence in Research Award | Dr Marxa Figueiredo, Associate Professor of Basic Medical Sciences in the Department of Basic Medical Sciences

Rebecca smiles while holding her award plaque outside the diagnostic lab
Dr. Rebecca Wilkes, Associate Professor of Molecular Diagnostics in the Department of Comparative Pathobiology and Head of the Molecular and Virology Sections of the Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, received the 2021 Service Excellence Award.

This award for outstanding basic and clinical research is sponsored by the College of Veterinary Medicine.

Service Excellence Award | Dr Rebecca Wilkes, Associate Professor of Molecular Diagnosis in the Department of Comparative Pathobiology and Head of the Molecular and Virology Sections at the Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory

Created to honor the Purdue School of Veterinary Medicine which has demonstrated consistent and sustained service delivery in our college, this award was presented to recognize Dr. Wilkes as a national leader in molecular diagnostics and for his pivotal role in success of the Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory in supporting the Protect Purdue initiative by testing human samples for COVID-19.

Faculty Excellence Award for Diversity and Inclusion | Dr Susan Mendrysa, Associate Professor of Basic Medical Sciences in the Department of Basic Medical Sciences

This award honors faculty at the College of Veterinary Medicine who demonstrate a commitment to diversity and inclusion through active recruitment and retention efforts, teaching, research, multicultural programming, outreach activities community or other initiatives.

Congratulations to all the winners! Click here to view the award ceremony on PVM’s YouTube channel.

Writers):
Susan Xioufaridou and Kevin Doerr | pvmnews@purdue.edu

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Carthage Area Hospital Adds Three To Its Therapy Services Team https://vetclinpathjournal.org/carthage-area-hospital-adds-three-to-its-therapy-services-team/ https://vetclinpathjournal.org/carthage-area-hospital-adds-three-to-its-therapy-services-team/#respond Fri, 24 Sep 2021 01:48:11 +0000 https://vetclinpathjournal.org/carthage-area-hospital-adds-three-to-its-therapy-services-team/

CARTHAGE – Three new providers have joined the Carthage Therapy Services team at the Carthage Region Hospital.

The hospital said Cale Siver, occupational therapist; Fran Garner, physiotherapist; and Vania Falen, speech therapist, joined us.

Siver received his Associate Degree in Health Studies in 2013 from Jefferson Community College in Watertown. He continued his education at Utica College for his Bachelor of Health Studies and Masters of Occupational Therapy, where he graduated in 2017. Siver moved to Maryland, where he worked for Caroline Nursing and Rehab in Denton, Anchorage Healthcare Center in Salisbury and The Pines Nursing. and Rehab in Easton. His career then took him to California and Arizona, before finally landing in Texas in 2020 at the Keller Oaks Healthcare Center.

Garner was born and raised in Miami, Florida. She attended Broward College in Pembroke Pines, where she received her associate’s degree with a major in pre-med in 2010. After Broward College, Garner earned her bachelor’s degree in athletic training with a minor in exercise science. at Nova Southeastern University in Fort Lauderdale in 2014. She completed her doctorate in physiotherapy with a focus on manual therapy at the University of Saint Augustine for Health Sciences in Florida in 2020. Garner is also a certified strength trainer and fitness. Before arriving at Carthage Hospital, she worked as a school physiotherapist for the Board of Cooperative Education Services in Watertown, as well as a qualified nursing physiotherapist at the Care Rehabilitation Center in Carthage. She also has five years of experience as a licensed athletic trainer in Orlando, providing injury prevention services to high performance athletes and industrial workers.

Originally from West Virginia, Falen is a speech language pathologist with over 25 years of clinical and administrative experience in a variety of therapeutic settings including hospitals, rehabilitation centers / clinics, private practices and schools. She received her bachelor’s degree in speech-language pathology and her master’s degree in speech-language pathology from the University of Tennessee. Falen arrives in Carthage from Claxton-Hepburn Medical Center in Ogdensburg, where she has been providing care since 2013 and continues to provide daily coverage as well as daily services at Canton-Potsdam Hospital and Saranac Lake Hospital. She also previously worked at Memorial Hospital for Children in Colorado Springs, Colorado and at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

“We are very pleased that these highly qualified professionals have joined our Therapy Services team. They each bring their individualized skills and talents, which support our mission of commitment to excellence in value-based healthcare and personal care to all who seek comfort and healing. Although we have occupational therapy and physiotherapy services available, it has been several years since we have been able to provide speech-language pathology services. We are now able to offer adult and pediatric services focused on nutrition and swallowing, language and cognitive rehabilitation, ”said Cheryl Tousant, Director of the Therapy Department of the Carthage Region Hospital. , in a press release.

The Carthage Area Hospital provides physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology services at two outlying clinics located on-site at the hospital and at Philadelphia Physical Therapy in the city of Philadelphia in Jefferson County, as well as acute and subacute therapy services. Its providers can help patients with pain, stiffness, muscle weakness, balance issues, limited mobility issues, etc.

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Vivos Therapeutics announces the formation of a new https://vetclinpathjournal.org/vivos-therapeutics-announces-the-formation-of-a-new/ https://vetclinpathjournal.org/vivos-therapeutics-announces-the-formation-of-a-new/#respond Thu, 23 Sep 2021 11:30:00 +0000 https://vetclinpathjournal.org/vivos-therapeutics-announces-the-formation-of-a-new/

HIGHLANDS RANCH, Colorado, September 23, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) – Vivos Therapeutics, Inc. (the “Company” or “Vivos”) (NASDAQ: VVOS), a medical technology company focused on the development and commercialization of innovative treatments for patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and snoring , today announced the official formation of the Vivos Medical Consortium. This working group of physicians will collaborate to advance the technological capabilities of Vivos OSA and include renowned physicians specializing in sleep medicine, neurology, pediatrics, pulmonology, anesthesiology, pain medicine, otolaryngology, obstetrics. and gynecology, cardiology, and forensics from leading academic institutions in the United States and Canada.

Led by Drs. Clete Kushida of Stanford University and Cecilia Wu of the University of Alberta, the Vivos Medical Consortium will assist the Company in the planning, dissemination and conduct of key research initiatives, enhancing physician-dentist collaborations and expanding new applications of Vivos technology to other medical conditions.

Members of the Vivos Medical Consortium include:

  • Clete Kushida MD PhD (co-chair), division chief and medical director of sleep medicine; Neurologist, Professor and Associate Chairman, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University
  • Cecilia Wu MD (co-chair), Anatomy, Cardiovascular and Forensic Pathology; Assistant Clinical Professor, University of Alberta
  • Fred Lin MD, head of the sleep surgery division; Assistant professor; Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
  • Manisha Witmans MD, specialist in sleep medicine and pediatric pulmonology; Associate Clinical Professor, University of Alberta
  • Samuel DeMaria MD, professor of anesthesiology, perioperative and pain medicine and otolaryngology; Vice President for Research, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
  • Seth Heckman MD, Obstetrics and Gynecology; Assistant Clinical Professor of Family Medicine, University of Alberta
  • Yury Khelemsky MD, program director, pain medicine fellowship; associate professor, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine; Department of Neurology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

“Every specialty in medicine deals in one way or another with the negative impact of obstructive sleep apnea, with the end stage of untreated sleep apnea comprising a decrease in quality of life, heart and metabolic disease and the potential for premature death, “said Dr. Wu.” Today more than ever, we see the critical importance of optimizing personal health. For decades, the only treatment options for sleep apnea were limited and often invasive, but with Vivos technology that has changed dramatically. Our physician working group has been impressed with the potential impact of Vivos technology and its applications, and I am delighted to co-lead the Vivos Medical Consortium with Dr. Kushida as we help guide scientific advancements and the company’s research efforts, as well as increasing awareness of Vivos technology in the medical field.

Commenting on the expected impact of the Vivos Medical Consortium, Vivos Chairman and CEO Kirk Huntsman said, “Obstructive sleep apnea is a serious medical problem, but it is a problem that, through use of Vivos technology, now has a very effective medical solution. which can be issued by a dentist. Under the leadership of the Vivos Medical Consortium, we look forward to continuing to advance our technology and presence in the medical and dental communities and to fulfill our mission statement to combat this devastating disease by addressing the underlying cause of the disease. OSA with minimal impact on quality of life. We hope that our medical consortium will facilitate wider adoption of our technology for patients who would benefit from our non-surgical and non-invasive solution. “

Members of the Medical Consortium will serve as consultants for Vivos and will receive usual compensation in cash and shares.

About Vivos Therapeutics, Inc.
Vivos Therapeutics Inc. (NASDAQ: VVOS) is a medical technology company focused on the development and commercialization of innovative diagnostic and treatment modalities for adult patients with respiratory sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea ( AOS). Vivos treatment for mild to moderate OSA involves a personalized oral appliance and protocols called the Vivos System. Vivos believes that its Vivos System oral appliance technology represents the first non-surgical, non-invasive, non-pharmaceutical and cost-effective clinically effective solution for people with mild to moderate OSA. Vivos also sells orthodontic appliances for adults and children. Vivos oral appliances have been shown to be effective in more than 19,000 patients worldwide by more than 1,250 dentists. Combining technologies and protocols that alter the size, shape, and position of a patient’s upper airway tissue, the Vivos system opens up airway space and can dramatically reduce symptoms and conditions associated with Mild to moderate OSA, such as lowering the apnea-hypopnea index scores. Vivos also markets and distributes VivosScore, powered by SleepImage diagnostic technology for home sleep testing in adults and children. The Vivos Integrated Practice (VIP) program provides dentists with training and other value-added services related to the use of the Vivos system.

For more information visit www.vIvoslife.com.

Caution Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This press release and the statements of the management of the Company in this regard contain “forward-looking statements” (as defined in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended) relating to future events, in particular in relation to the public offering described herein. Words such as “may”, “should”, “expects”, “plans”, “intends”, “plans”, “believes”, “plans”, “hopes”, “believes” and variations of these words and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks and are based on several assumptions and estimates, which are inherently subject to significant uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond Vivos’ control. Actual results (including the anticipated benefits of Vivos Medical Consortium as described in this document) may differ materially from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially include, without limitation, the risk factors described in documents filed by Vivos with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The documents filed by Vivos can be obtained free of charge from the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Except to the extent required by law, Vivos expressly disclaims any obligation or commitment to publicly release any update or revision to any forward-looking statement contained herein to reflect any change in Vivos’ expectations in this regard or any change in the events, conditions or circumstances upon which any statement is based.

Investor Relations Contact:
Edouard Loew
Investor Relations Officer
(602) 903-0095
ed@vivoslife.com

Contact person for media relations:
Caitlin Kasunich / Jenny Robles
KCSA strategic communication
(212) 896-1241 / (212) 896-1231
ckasunich@kcsa.com / jrobles@kcsa.com

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Brain’s ‘blue dot’ may help identify Alzheimer’s disease earlier https://vetclinpathjournal.org/brains-blue-dot-may-help-identify-alzheimers-disease-earlier/ https://vetclinpathjournal.org/brains-blue-dot-may-help-identify-alzheimers-disease-earlier/#respond Wed, 22 Sep 2021 18:11:15 +0000 https://vetclinpathjournal.org/brains-blue-dot-may-help-identify-alzheimers-disease-earlier/

The locus coeruleus (LC) is a tiny region of the brain that plays a disproportionate role in the functioning of our central nervous system. The name of LC comes from Latin for blue spot, its notable color is the product of intense chemical activity. This activity produces the main brain source of the vital neurotransmitter norepinephrine, which controls our “fight or flight” response to environmental stimuli and plays a role in our sleep-wake cycle and emotional regulation.

A new study, published in
Science Translational Medicinesuggests that changes in CL may provide a new way to indicate the early spread of Alzheimer’s disease in the brain.

The study was published by a collaborative group of researchers including
Dr Heidi Jacobs, assistant professor at the Gordon Center for Medical Imaging at Massachusetts General Hospital. The first author Jacobs spoke to Technological networks on the difficulties of studying this region. “It’s very deep in the brain, located in the bridge. This is a very difficult region to image with standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tools because it is so faint. In the scanner, the coils that pass above your head end up just below the bridges, so the signal you capture becomes noisy.

“It’s also very small, about 2mm thick and 12mm long. Standard MRI methods have a resolution of 1 or 2 mm, so it’s difficult to capture, ”says Jacobs.

Could we make Alzheimer’s diagnoses decades earlier?


Alzheimer’s disease, the most common cause of dementia, is believed to be fueled by the spread of two pathological proteins: beta-amyloid (Aβ) and the microtubule-associated protein tau. The characteristic impairment that Alzheimer’s disease causes in memory and learning is believed to be the result of its impact on higher learning regions in the brain, such as the hippocampus and cortex. So why is the LC, nestled in the lower regions of the brainstem, a region of interest?

“What’s so interesting about this structure specifically in Alzheimer’s disease,” explains Jacobs, “is that it’s one of the first areas of the brain that accumulates tau pathology, potentially 30 to 40 years old. before seeing any of the clinical symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. disease, even before seeing cortical damage. Being able to study this structure at an earlier age would potentially help us improve the early detection of Alzheimer’s disease.

To overcome the challenges of studying LC, Jacobs and his team used new advances in MRI – imaging at an improved resolution of 0.3 mm. As we age, the intensity of the MRI signal in the LC increases, as the activity of the region produces endogenous toxins which are then stored in measurable pigmented cells. However, it is believed that the early onset of tau buildup damages these pigmented cells, resulting in an altered signal that could be detected by the team’s ultra-sensitive MRI.

A sagittal slice of the brain (viewed from the side of the head) reveals the locus coeruleus, shown in blue. Credit: Heidi Jacobs

In their study, Jacobs’ team used a wide range of data. 221 Harvard Brain Aging Study (HABS) patients were recruited for MRI imaging and two postmortem data sets – 1,524 Religious Orders Study and Rush Memory and Aging Project (ROSMAP) case records and 2,145 cases from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center (NACC) – have also been used. These latter data had previously been evaluated for the level of LC damage and Alzheimer’s pathology in the upper brain regions.


Functional results

Jacobs’ team showed that reductions in LC integrity were a key indicator of higher levels of tau protein accumulation in the entorhinal cortex. Increases in tau neurofibrillary tangles in the LC were associated with a poorer assessment of cortical pathology, referred to as Braak’s stage, while reduction in LC pigmentation was associated with later Braak stages.

It is important to note that, according to Jacobs, the disease processes most closely related to CL were those in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease, a sign that the assessment of CL could be used as a predictor of the further spread of CL. disease.

A latest experiment has shown that reduced LC integrity is associated with faster decline in memory and executive function – key symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.

“What we have shown is that the integrity of the LC is associated with these initial cortical patterns of tau pathology and cognitive decline,” explains Jacobs. She explains that some researchers thought the changes in LC were simply indicators of healthy aging, but the new findings show that the MRI signal may instead be an early biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease.

By providing an indication of disease risk decades before symptoms appear, the LC signal, Jacobs hopes, could enable more successful clinical trials where early intervention is seen as crucial for success. “We need to go sooner, and I think that’s where the clinical implication of this work lies,” Jacobs concludes.

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First Approved AI Pathology Program: Helps Detect Prostate Cancer https://vetclinpathjournal.org/first-approved-ai-pathology-program-helps-detect-prostate-cancer/ https://vetclinpathjournal.org/first-approved-ai-pathology-program-helps-detect-prostate-cancer/#respond Wed, 22 Sep 2021 10:11:47 +0000 https://vetclinpathjournal.org/first-approved-ai-pathology-program-helps-detect-prostate-cancer/

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has cleared artificial intelligence (AI) software to help pathologists detect prostate cancer.

The program, called Paige Prostate, is the first AI system approved in pathology.

“We really believe this product can make a huge difference,” said Paige CEO Leo Grady, PhD. Medscape Medical News.

The program has been approved as an adjunct to the pathologist review, not a replacement.

Grady explained that “for a second opinion today you send someone else a glass slide or do another stain that’s really expensive or you do another molecular test.”

With Paige Prostate, pathologists digitally scan and download biopsy slides to their computer, then import them into the program, which is a cloud-based service accessible through a web browser.

The software compares the tissue models to a large database of tissue models collected at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, which Paige established as a company in 2018 from her work on scanning and applying l AI to pathology slides.

The program looks for patterns that have already been diagnosed as cancer. When it finds such patterns, it highlights them so that pathologists can grasp them, so that they “don’t miss a thing” and have “a lot more confidence in their diagnosis without having to send it in for further consultation. “Grady said.

Shortly after the agency announced the marketing authorization on September 21, Acting FDA Commissioner Janet Woodcock, MD, tweeted that she is “still excited to see potentially life-saving advancements in medical device technology, such as the use of artificial intelligence to help identify prostate cancer.”

FDA approval was based on a study in which 16 pathologists examined 527 digitally scanned prostate biopsy slides; 171 of the specimens were cancerous and 356 were benign. The pathologist did two assessments, one with and one without program assistance.

The software improved cancer detection on individual slide images by an average of 7.3% compared to unassisted reads. There was no impact on the reading of benign slides.

The FDA has said the risk of false negatives and false positives with the program is mitigated by its use as an adjunct and by pathologists’ consideration of the patient’s history, additional lab studies, and other clinical information.

Grady said the price was per slide but did not provide numbers.

Mr. Alexander Otto is a medical assistant and holds a master’s degree in medical science. He is an award-winning medical journalist who worked for several major news organizations before joining Medscape. He is an MIT Knight Fellow in Science Journalism. Email: aotto@mdedge.com.

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How Inheret promotes early detection of genetic cancers with its guideline-based tool https://vetclinpathjournal.org/how-inheret-promotes-early-detection-of-genetic-cancers-with-its-guideline-based-tool/ https://vetclinpathjournal.org/how-inheret-promotes-early-detection-of-genetic-cancers-with-its-guideline-based-tool/#respond Tue, 21 Sep 2021 16:15:01 +0000 https://vetclinpathjournal.org/how-inheret-promotes-early-detection-of-genetic-cancers-with-its-guideline-based-tool/

CEO and Founder of Inheret, Dr David F. Keren, discusses the origins of the Cancer Risk Detection Platform and its mission to identify inherited diseases early.

Why did you start this business?

We started Inheret because it was something we needed. Here in the United States, 60 million people have a family history that puts them at risk for hereditary cancer, or about 1 in 5 people. But too often these cancers go undetected early enough because patients don’t know that they are at risk and do not get tested. There are so many tragic stories of people in their twenties and thirties who sadly have poor outcomes after being diagnosed with cancer that could have been prevented or treated early.

About nine years ago, someone contacted me to ask if I could look into this problem with an insurance company in Michigan. Their concern was that doctors were not following clinical guidelines when ordering molecular tests, such as the BRCA for breast cancer risk, which was new at the time.

They gave me a grant to talk to doctors in Michigan to find out what was going on. During this year, I learned from healthcare professionals that it is a matter of time: primary care physicians only have 10 to 15 minutes to meet with patients, who are shifted to caring for them. other problems like high blood pressure and diabetes. They don’t have time to take a detailed family history that signals the need for genetic testing. In many places, genetic counselors are unavailable or their waiting lists stretch out over several months, further compounding the barriers for these physicians.

Dr David Keren

We therefore set out to develop a mechanism to collect a detailed family history that would not take providers time and that would also be linked to current guidelines so that doctors can refer at-risk patients for genetic counseling and order the appropriate tests. Together, our team worked on a prototype online tool that patients could fill out on their own to map their family history. Over the years, we have continued to improve and refine this tool.

What specific need are you looking to meet in the field of health?

We want to empower individuals to accurately identify their risk for inherited disease and give providers the information they need to make sure their patients have access to genetics. Ultimately, the goal is to remove the burden of cancer risk assessment so that more patients are offered appropriate screening for both common neoplasms such as breast cancer. or colon and less common ones such as melanoma and pancreatic cancer.

We stress the importance of the patient’s family history. During our focus group research, many people told us that they felt like they were giving their doctors the same information over and over again, and it was simply stored in their records and forgotten. After a while, this can make a person less willing to answer these same questions if they feel like it doesn’t matter.

Plus, as many of us know, when you’re in the waiting room anxious about your appointment for your immediate medical condition, the last things you think about are your aunt’s or your aunt’s illnesses. your uncle. We want people to know that the act of building their family health history gets the time and consideration it deserves and that the data obtained will be used to decrease their chances of developing cancer and other family illnesses.

What does your product do? How it works?

Individuals are invited to create an account with Inheret by SMS or e-mail through their supplier or employer. When that person clicks on the link, they are taken to our secure and HIPAA compliant website. From there, they’ll take an easy-to-follow questionnaire about their personal and family health history. Once that’s done, they have a full family history card to keep with them, along with strategies and recommendations based on national best practice guidelines. Each year, Inheret sends them a link to update their medical history information so that it can be used against guideline changes to produce an up-to-date report.

Behind the scenes, the individual’s information passes through a risk analysis algorithm that assesses relevant issues, including ethnicity and the age at which family members developed cancer. For participating clinics, physicians are automatically informed when a patient’s family history is submitted and whether this warrants genetic counseling or genetic testing as required. Comprehensive National Cancer Control Network and other best practice guidelines.

Individuals have the opportunity to share their family history and Inheret report with other providers or family members.

Is this your first healthcare startup? What is your background in the health field?

Well, yes and no. I started as a professor of pathology at the University of Michigan where I worked on tests for immunological and neoplastic diseases. After a decade of service with them, I was offered the opportunity to take on the role of Medical Director and CEO of a newly created Reference Medical Laboratory. I didn’t face the interesting challenges of getting something like this off the ground. But I’ve helped take this business from a few local hospitals to over 100 sites in 19 states. After 22 years in this role, I retired and came back to university to teach part-time, and that’s when the opportunity to start Inheret arose.

What is the economic model of your company?

Our economic model is threefold. The main driver of revenue is selling individual licenses to healthcare providers, who can then enroll an unlimited number of patients. Second, we work with large companies interested in lowering healthcare costs for their workforce while keeping employees happy and healthy. For them, we charge a fee per employee, as negotiated by the size of the employer. And finally, we are offering labs the option of being listed on our Inheret Platform website to streamline the test ordering process for physicians.

Do you have clinical validation for your product?

We do. A study presented a year ago at the National Comprehensive Cancer Network meeting found a 100% accuracy rate when genetic counselors manually reviewed cases analyzed by our digital tool and more than 8 in 10 patients said the tool was easy to use. Meanwhile, the time between requesting and submitting a family history has dropped from four to six weeks to just 72 hours at a genetic risk assessment clinic, and the center’s 400 waiting patients have been completely wiped out. Corn more Importantly, the tool recently identified 44 high-risk patients in a primary care clinic who could then take action to manage their risk. Another study published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology found similar results.

On the operational level, we also studied the return on investment of health centers. We have found that for each patient deemed to be at high risk, the Inheret tool generates an added value of $ 6,800 from billable preventive care revenue from laboratory work, imaging studies and harm reduction treatments. and surgeries.

Finally, we have an article accepted for publication in the Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. In this study, we analyzed approximately 2,000 patients from a genetics clinic and primary care clinics to determine the effectiveness of our tool in identifying cases requiring genetic evaluation. In the genetics clinic, over 85% of patients completed Inheret and 79% of women and 66% of men and non-binary patients met benchmarks for genetic evaluation. In primary care, 59% of patients completed Inheret and 49% of these patients met benchmarks. These were patients established in primary care who had not previously been identified as being at increased risk, allowing them to take advantage of preventive care options that could reduce their cancer risk by up to 96%.

To learn more about how Inheret identifies the risk of hereditary cancers of the breast, ovaries, skin, thyroid, colon, etc., visit its website.

Photo: SusanneB, GettyImages

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Changes in fibrin clot structure contribute to risk of thrombosis in severe cases of COVID-19 https://vetclinpathjournal.org/changes-in-fibrin-clot-structure-contribute-to-risk-of-thrombosis-in-severe-cases-of-covid-19/ https://vetclinpathjournal.org/changes-in-fibrin-clot-structure-contribute-to-risk-of-thrombosis-in-severe-cases-of-covid-19/#respond Tue, 21 Sep 2021 05:25:00 +0000 https://vetclinpathjournal.org/changes-in-fibrin-clot-structure-contribute-to-risk-of-thrombosis-in-severe-cases-of-covid-19/

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the novel coronavirus, causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is a multisystem disease affecting the airways. Data available to date show that endothelial damage caused by overactivation of the immune system is a major underlying molecular mechanism for the severity and mortality of COVID-19. In addition, this endothelial damage causes numerous abnormalities of hemostasis in severe COVID-19 patients.

Thus, in addition to high levels of pro and anti-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin (IL) -6, IL-10, IL-2R and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), increased levels D-dimers, fibrinogen, and prolonged prothrombin time (PT) have also been found in severe COVID-19 patients. These are clinically relevant because abnormal D-dimer levels are associated with 28-day mortality in COVID-19 patients. In addition, post-mortem studies show the presence of micro-thrombus and capillarostasis in the lungs of patients. The high incidence of thrombotic events in severe COVID-19 patients indicates a possible role of the contact system pathway in COVID-19 pathology.

FXII is activated in severe COVID-19 patients

European researchers recently demonstrated altered levels of factor XII (FXII) and its activation products in 2 independent cohorts of critically ill patients with COVID-19 compared to patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by the influenza virus (acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) -flu). This study is published on the preprint server, bioRxiv*.

FXII is a serine protease in the blood coagulation contact phase system that circulates in plasma as a single chain zymogen.

By coming into contact with anionic surfaces such as kaolin, extracellular neutrophil traps, extracellular RNA from damaged cells or activated platelet polyphosphates, FXII is self-activated in αFXIIa.

Overall, activation of the contact phase system leads to increased production of thrombin and fibrin, although the FXIIa / PKa-mediated conversion of plasminogen to plasmin may have a moderate effect on fibrinolysis.

Activation of the contact phase system in the plasma of critically ill COVID-19 patients. A, C) Western blot analysis (left panels) of factor XII (FXII) A) and high molecular weight kininogen (HK) C) in plasma of moderate and severe COVID-19 patients (infected with SARS-CoV2 ) and donors. Four out of 15 moderate and severe COVID-19 patients and 3 out of 15 donors have been demonstrated. The right panels show the specificity of the antibodies used. B, D) Densitometric analysis of A) and C), respectively. Moderate / severe COVID-19 n = 15, donor n = 15. E) PKa-like activity in plasma of moderate (n = 14) and severe (n = 14) (n = 15) COVID-19 patients and donors. F) Correlation between the levels of intact HK-type activity and PKa in the plasma of patients with severe Covid-19. n = 14. The correlation is performed using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. * p <0.05, ** p <0.01, *** p <0.001 The data in B), D) and E) are represented by the mean +/- SD.

Fibrinogen and FXIIa regulate fibrin network density in COVID-19

The researchers also reported rapid consumption of FXII in the plasma of COVID-19 patients, but not in the plasma of ARDS influenza, which is consistent with the data above. Interestingly, the clotting time of kaolin was not prolonged in COVID-19 patients compared to that of patients with ARDS influenza.

“High levels of fibrinogen have been reported to contribute to faster fibrin formation and increased density, strength and stability of the fibrin network. “

Using confocal and electron microscopy, the researchers showed that the increased rate of activation of FXII, along with elevated levels of fibrinogen, results in the formation of fibrinolysis-resistant clots with thin fibers and small pores in COVID-19 patients.

“The clots generated from the COVID-19 plasma had a higher packing density, small pores and were made of thin fibers. “

As a result, clot lysis has been observed in 30% of COVID-19 patients and 84% of patients with ARDS influenza. When analyzing sections of lung tissue from COVID-19 patients, large deposits of compact extra- and intravascular fibrin were revealed.

Results help establish a model for future studies on the role of altered fibrin clot structure in COVID-19 thrombosis

Based on current and previous findings, the uncontrolled response of defense mechanisms, including the immune system and coagulation, constitutes the underlying mechanism for severe infection with SARS-CoV-2.

Abnormalities in the composition of plasma, immune blood cells due to viral-mediated cell damage, and release of intracellular debris all promote activation of FXII. Besides high levels of fibrinogen, FXIIa leads to the formation of pathological thrombi not only by the generation of thrombin but also by the formation of compact clots resistant to lysis.

Overall, study results indicate that increased fibrinogen levels and increased rate of FXII activation lead to thrombosis and resistance to thrombolysis through increased thrombus formation and stability. in COVID-19 patients. Thus, this study establishes a model for future studies on the role of the altered structure of the fibrin clot in thrombosis and thrombolysis in severe COVID-19 patients.

“That the interaction of FXII / FXIIa with fibrinogen may interfere with the binding of t-PA to fibrin and thus inhibit fibrinolysis deserves further investigation. “

*Important Notice

bioRxiv publishes preliminary scientific reports which are not peer reviewed and, therefore, should not be considered conclusive, guide clinical practice / health-related behavior, or treated as established information.

Journal reference:

  • Altered fibrin clot structure contributes to risk of thrombosis in severe cases of COVID-19 Malgorzata Wygrecka, Anna Birnhuber, Benjamin Seeliger, Laura Michalick, Oleg Pak, Astrid-Solveig Schultz, Fabian Schramm, Martin Zacharias, Gregor Gorkiewicz, Sascha David, Tobias Welte, Julius J Schmidt, Norbert Weissmann, Ralph T. Schermuly, Guillermo Barreto, Liliana Schaefer, Philipp Markart, Markus C. Brack, Stefan Hippenstiel, Florian Kurth, Leif E. Sander, Martin Witzenrath, Wolfgang M. Kuebler, Grazyna Kwapiszewska, Klaus T. Preissner, bioRxiv, 2021.09.17.460777; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.09.17.460777, https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.09.17.460777v1
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A new synthetic multiantigen MVA COH04S1 vaccine effective against SARS-CoV-2 https://vetclinpathjournal.org/a-new-synthetic-multiantigen-mva-coh04s1-vaccine-effective-against-sars-cov-2/ https://vetclinpathjournal.org/a-new-synthetic-multiantigen-mva-coh04s1-vaccine-effective-against-sars-cov-2/#respond Mon, 20 Sep 2021 01:49:00 +0000 https://vetclinpathjournal.org/a-new-synthetic-multiantigen-mva-coh04s1-vaccine-effective-against-sars-cov-2/

Scientists believe that vaccinating the entire world’s population is the key to containing the current 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. This pandemic is caused by the rapid onset of a ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus known as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

Study: The synthetic multiantigen MVA COH04S1 vaccine protects against SARS-CoV-2 in Syrian hamsters and non-human primates. Image Credit: peterschrieber.media/Shutterstock.com

Immune protection against SARS-CoV-2

To date, several COVID-19 vaccines have received Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) from regulatory agencies in many countries around the world. Some of the vaccines that have received EUA are based on adenoviral vectors, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and nanoparticle technologies. These vaccines target different antigenic forms of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein to trigger an immune response against SARS-CoV-2.

While COVID-19 vaccines have given hope of containing the pandemic, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants has extended the timeline. Indeed, certain variants of SARS-CoV-2 can escape immune responses induced by vaccines or by previous natural infections.

The decrease in neutralizing antibodies (NAb) produced by vaccines has also called into question the durability of vaccine protection. Therefore, a need exists for an alternative vaccine based on various modifications of epitopes or antigen design to provide long-lasting and long-lasting protection against variants of concern of SARS-CoV-2 (VoC).

The main immune correlate of protection includes the blockade of the S protein-angiotensin converting enzyme receptor 2 (ACE2) interaction by NAb. However, several studies have indicated that humoral and cellular immune responses are elicited by many antigens in addition to the S protein.

For example, the core (N) protein is considered a dominant target for inducing antibody production and triggering T cell responses. As the N protein is associated with a highly conserved region, it represents a favorable antigenic target. to generate long-lasting and largely reactive T cells. Numerous studies using animal models have indicated the benefits of using the N protein as the primary vaccine antigen.

The development of a multiantigenic SARS-CoV-2 vaccine using synthetic platforms

Previously, scientists had developed multiantigenic vaccine agents against SARS-CoV-2 using synthetic platforms. The Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vector, which is known as the backbone of vector vaccines, is marketed in the United States as Jynneos ™ (Bavarian-Nordic).

MVA is a highly attenuated poxvirus vector which is commonly used for the production of infectious disease and cancer vaccines. MVA shows many promising characteristics such as its safety profile in animals and humans, flexible delivery, and its ability to elicit potent humoral and cellular immune responses to heterologous antigens.

A new study published on the bioRxiv* The preprint server used MVA to develop candidate vaccines which were then evaluated in animal models of congenital cytomegalovirus disease. This study indicated the effectiveness of the vaccine in patients with solid tumors or those who had undergone stem cell transplants.

In this study, researchers used a synthetic MVA platform (sMVA) to develop sMVA vectors co-expressing full-length S and N antigen sequences. These sequences showed promising immunogenicity in mice, as evidenced by their ability to elicit humoral and cellular immune responses specific to the SARS-CoV-2 antigen with a high concentration of NAb.

One of the sMVA constructs is COH04S1 and is known to be a clinical vaccine candidate. In a randomized, double-blind, single-center, placebo-controlled Phase I clinical trial in healthy adults, researchers found COH04S1 to be safe and immunogenic. The present study evaluated COH04S1 in a randomized, double-blind, single-center phase II trial in hematologic patients who had previously received cell therapy.

In their study, the researchers found that COH04S1 stimulated an immune response against SARS-CoV-2 in Syrian hamsters via intramuscular (IM) and intranasal (IN) vaccination. In addition, non-human primates (PNH) have been treated with single-dose (1D) and two-dose (2D) vaccination schedules. The results obtained in this study were consistent with the clinical evaluation of this sMVA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.

COH04S1-mediated vaccine protection in hamsters after sublethal challenge with SARS-CoV-2. a. Change in body weight. The body weight of animals vaccinated against COH04S1-IM and COH04S1-IN as well as unvaccinated control animals and sMVA-IM and sMVA-IN was measured daily for 10 days after challenge. Weight loss is reported as a mean ± SD. A two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison test was used to compare group mean values ​​at each time point. b. Maximum weight loss. The percentage of maximum weight loss is indicated in animals only of the vaccinated and control groups. Lines and bars represent median values ​​and 95% CI, respectively. The dotted line represents the maximum weight loss allowed before euthanasia. Peak weight loss in each group was compared using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison test. CD. Pulmonary viral loads. Copies of genomic RNA (gRNA) and subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) of SARS-CoV-2 were quantified in lung tissue of the vaccinated and control groups on day 10 post challenge by qPCR. Bars show the geometric mean of RNA copies ± geometric SD. Dashed lines represent a lower limit of detection. The Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn’s multiple comparison test was used. eh. Histopathological findings. Hematoxylin / eosin stained lung sections from hamsters and control animals vaccinated with COH04S1 on day 10 post challenge were evaluated by a certified pathologist and the microscopic results were graded according to severity on a scale of. 1 to 5 (Table S2). Panel e shows the cumulative pathology score of all histopathological findings in each group. Panel F shows the ranking of the severity of bronchio-alveolar hyperplasia disease in each group. One-way ANOVA followed by the Holm-Sidak multiple comparison test was used. Panel g shows the severity of pulmonary inflammatory microscopic findings based on a scale of 1 to 5 of four types of inflammation, as shown. Bars in, for example, represent mean values ​​± SD. One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison test was used. In bf * = 0.05

h shows representative images of histopathologic findings in lung sections of animals vaccinated with COH04S1 and control animals. Black arrows indicate moderate and mild bronchio-alveolar hyperplasia in lung sections of sMVA-IM and sMVA-IN control animals as well as COH04S1-IN animals. Black arrows in lung sections of unvaccinated control animals indicate hyperplastic alveolar cells. 10x magnification.

IM and IN vaccination of Syrian hamsters with COH04S1 induced strong humoral immunity specific to the Th1 biased antigen, as well as crossed NAbs. Animals were found to be protected against reduced body weight, lower respiratory tract infections, and lung injury after the IN SARS-CoV-2 challenge.

The researchers also found that the 1D and 2D vaccines induced potent antigen-specific binding antibodies, NAbs, and Th1-biased T cells. These immune cells strongly provided protection against upper and lower respiratory tract infections.

Conclusion

The current study has developed COH04S1, which is a synthetic, multiantigen MVA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine that targets the S and N antigens of SARS-CoV-2. The efficacy of the newly developed vaccine was determined using animal models.

Current research has shown that the COH04S1 vaccine offers protection through different routes and dosage schedules. The results supplemented ongoing clinical trials of the SARS-CoV-2 multiantigen vaccine.

COH04S1 represents a second generation COVID-19 vaccine candidate that could be used alone or in combination with other existing vaccines to elicit protective immune responses against SARS-CoV-2. The authors of this study are optimistic that this vaccine would establish a stable, long-term immune response to prevent COVID-19.

*Important Notice

bioRxiv publishes preliminary scientific reports that are not peer reviewed and, therefore, should not be considered conclusive, guide clinical practice / health-related behavior, or treated as established information.

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